• Clinical science

African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness)


African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly. The disease is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa; all cases that occur in the US are the result of travel to endemic regions. There are two forms of the disease with distinct geographical distributions and rates of clinical progression. West African sleeping sickness is caused by T. b. gambiense and progresses slowly, while East African sleeping sickness is caused by T. b. rhodesiense and progresses rapidly. Patients with either subtype of the disease initially present with a painful nodule or chancre at the site of the bite, followed by a hemolymphatic phase with fever and lymphadenopathy (stage I). Eventually, patients develop CNS symptoms (stage II), which are characterized by behavioral changes and a reversal of the sleep-wake cycle. If the disease is left untreated, patients will succumb to coma and die. The disease is diagnosed if the trypomastigote is found in chancre fluid, lymph node aspirates, or blood smears. The drugs of choice for stage I T. b. gambiense infection are pentamidine and fexinidazole, while suramin is the drug of choice for stage I T. b. rhodesiense. An eflornithine-nifurtimox combination and fexinidazole monotherapy are the therapy of choice for stage II T. b. gambiense infection, while melarsoprol is the drug of choice for stage II T. b. rhodesiense. No vaccine or chemoprophylaxis for African trypanosomiasis is available.


  • Distribution: sub-Saharan Africa
  • Incidence: < 15,000 estimated cases in 2014

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.



West African sleeping sickness (Gambian trypanosomiasis) East African sleeping sickness (Rhodesian trypanosomiasis)
Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
Vector Tsetse fly
Glossina palpalis Glossina morsitans
Regional distribution Central and West Africa Eastern and southeastern Africa
Incidence in the US Extremely rare 1–2 cases per year

Primary reservoir


Cattle, antelope

Clinical course

Chronic, slowly progressive disease

Acute disease with poor demarcation between stages


Clinical features

Stage I (hemolymphatic phase)

Stage II (neurologic phase)



A history of travel to an endemic region is an important diagnostic clue for trypanosomiasis.

CSF examination must be performed for all patients with suspected or confirmed African trypanosomiasis to rule out stage II disease because the drug of choice depends on the stage of the disease.



  • Early in-patient treatment is very important.
  • The drug of choice for trypanosomiasis is dependent on the stage of the disease and the subspecies of T. brucei (see the table below).
  • Follow-up: CSF examination should be repeated every six months for two years.

Trypanosomal therapy [2]

West African sleeping sickness East African sleeping sickness
Stage I (bloodborne disease)
  • First-line: pentamidine, fexinidazole
  • Second-line: suramin


Stage II (CNS invasion)


African trypanosomiasis is generally lethal without therapy.

To remember that in East African sleeping sickness bloodborne disease is treated with suramin and melarsoprol is used to treat invasion of the brain (CNS), think: BLOODy SURe, this MELody is stuck in my BRAIN.


  • Instructions for people traveling to or working in endemic regions
    • Use preventive measures in the daytime
    • Wear long-sleeved protective clothing with neutral colors
    • Use insect repellants
  • Public health measures in endemic regions
    • Vector control methods such as insecticide spraying and fly traps
    • Population screening programs and early treatment of infections to decrease the number of human hosts

No chemoprophylaxis and no vaccine for T. brucei is available.

  • 1. Le T, Bhushan V,‎ Sochat M, Chavda Y, Zureick A. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2018. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2017.
  • 2. WHO/Department of control of neglected tropical diseases. WHO interim guidelines for the treatment of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/326178/9789241550567-eng.pdf. Updated August 1, 2019. Accessed July 9, 2020.
  • Jamonneau V, Ilboudo H, Kaboré J, et al. Untreated Human Infections by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Are Not 100% Fatal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(6): p. e1691. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001691.
last updated 07/09/2020
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