• Clinical science



Headache is a commonly presenting complaint in everyday clinical practice, and, according to the WHO, one of the ten most common causes of functional disability. It may be primary (e.g., tension-type headaches, migraine) or secondary (e.g., following head trauma or infections) in nature. Headache may occur as acute episodes or persist chronically. Chronic headaches, which are associated with a decline in quality of life, have a significant socioeconomic impact. Therefore, chronic headaches should be diagnosed and treated early. Although most episodes of headache are fleeting and harmless, one must always consider potentially life-threatening causes (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis). Identifying the cause of headaches is often difficult, and requires a detailed clinical history as well as a thorough physical examination. Additional investigation, such as cranial imaging, is only indicated if headache persists despite treatment or when specific clinical features are present that are signs of an underlying disease. This learning card gives an overview of the most common types of headache and serves as a guide to diagnosing different headache disorders.


  • Distribution: Headache is a global health problem that affects people of all ages, ethnicities, and regions.
  • Worldwide prevalence: 60%
  • Most common forms of headache
    • Tension-type headache: 60–80% of cases
    • Migraine: 12–14% of cases


Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.


Type of headache Common causes

Primary headache

Secondary headache

Head and/or cervical trauma
Vascular disorders in the head and neck region
Non-vascular intracranial disorders
Introduction or withdrawal of a substance
Disorders of homeostasis
Disorders of the eyes, teeth, nasal cavity, neck, and/or paranasal sinuses
Psychiatric disorders
Cranial nerve neuralgias and facial pain
Headaches that do not fit any of the patterns above or have an unknown cause are referred to as “unclassified headache disorders.”


Clinical features

Clinical history

  • Duration of a single episode
  • Frequency (number of episodes per month)
  • Clinical course (e.g., chronic , acute)
Nature of headache
  • Localization (e.g., unilateral, bilateral, orbital)
  • Character (e.g., pulsating, stabbing)
  • Intensity (rated on a pain scale ranging from 0 to 10)
Triggers and exacerbating factors
  • Altered sleep-wake cycle
  • Physical exertion
  • Stress
  • Certain types of food, alcohol
  • Fluctuations in hormone levels: oral contraceptives, menstruation
  • Lying down or standing up
Concomitant symptoms
Other relevant aspects

Physical examination

A detailed clinical history helps to identify the underlying cause of headache, especially when neurological examination is normal (e.g., primary headaches)!

A thorough physical examination is important to identify the cause of secondary headache!



Additional diagnostic tests should be undertaken if any of the following red flags are present:
Imaging Additional tests

Diagnostic tests are usually not indicated in most cases (especially primary headaches). They are used primarily to evaluate secondary headaches and severe, acute headaches, which may be life-threatening (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, trauma)!

The investigation of choice is determined by the clinical presentation!

Differential diagnoses

Primary headaches

Tension headache Migraine Cluster headache
  • <
  • <
  • > (3:1)
  • Episodic or chronic
  • 4–72 hours
  • 30–180 min
  • Occasionally to daily
  • Occasionally to several times a month
  • 1–3 episodes/24 h
  • Holocephalic or bifrontal
  • 60% are unilateral
  • Mostly unilateral
  • Compressive, non-pulsating dull pain (band-like)
  • Pulsating, boring/hammering pain
  • Severe headache that is localized to the periorbital region
  • Mild to moderate
  • Moderate to severe
  • Severe
Additional symptoms No additional autonomic symptoms
  • Ipsilateral conjunctival injection and/or epiphora (excessive lacrimation)
  • Rhinorrhea and swelling of nasal mucous membranes
  • Partial horner syndrome (ptosis, miosis)
  • Ipsilateral forehead or facial sweating
Triggers/exacerbating factors
  • Stress
  • Lack of sleep, fatigue
  • Stress
  • Fluctuation in hormone levels: oral contraceptives, menstruation
  • Certain types of food (e.g., those containing tyramines or nitrates such as processed meat, chocolate, cheese)
  • Physical exertion
  • Alcohol

Secondary headache

The following table deals with secondary causes of headaches, some of which are life-threatening but treatable and should therefore be diagnosed as early as possible.

Causes Diagnosis Type of headache Additional clinical features
Infections Meningitis
  • Dull, diffuse (holocephalic) headache that worsens over hours/days
  • Acute, diffuse headache that worsens over time
Vascular causes Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Vomiting
  • Rapidly worsening neurological status
  • Focal neurological deficits
  • Seizures
  • Horizontal gaze palsy
  • Spasmodic torticollis (with the head turned towards the side of the lesion)
  • Epidural and/or subdural hemorrhage: diffuse headache which worsens over time (the pain is worst on the side of intracranial hemorrhage)
  • Impaired consciousness
  • Signs of increased intracranial pressure
  • Ipsilateral mydriasis
  • Possibly focal neurological deficits
  • Epidural hemorrhage: initial loss of consciousness → symptomless lucid interval during which the patient regains consciousness → loss of consciousness for the second time
  • Chronic subdural hemorrhage
    • Psychomotor impairment
    • Memory loss
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis
  • Mostly nonspecific complaints: subacute onset; a dull, diffuse headache that increases in intensity over hours/days
Temporal arteritis
  • Boring, temporal headache that is synchronous with the arterial pulse
Hypertensive crisis/ hypertensive emergency
  • Diffuse (sometimes bifrontal), pulsating headache that is exacerbated by physical activity
  • 25% of all cases present with acute headache (most commonly tension-type, less frequently migrainous or a mixed type)
  • Focal neurological deficits
  • Possibly impaired consciousness
Tumors Intracranial space-occupying lesion (e.g., brain tumors)
  • A dull headache that is usually bifrontal and worsens over weeks/months
Trauma Traumatic brain injury
  • Headache of variable intensity
  • Possibly loss of consciousness
  • Possibly focal neurological deficits
Other causes Glaucoma
  • Severe, unilateral headache
  • Impaired vision
  • Eye pain
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • A stony hard eyeball that is tender to touch
Medication-overuse headache
  • Dull, long-lasting headache

Consider secondary life-threatening causes if red flags are present!


The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

  • 1. Le T, Bhushan V, Chen V, King M. First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK. McGraw-Hill Education; 2015.
  • 2. Jenkins B, McInnis M, Lewis C. Step-Up to USMLE Step 2 CK. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.
  • 3. Olesen J. The International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd Edition. https://www.ichd-3.org/. Updated January 1, 2016. Accessed April 2, 2017.
  • 4. Fischer C. Master the Boards USMLE Step 2 CK. New York, NY: Kaplan Publishing; 2015.
  • 5. Le T, Bhushan V, Sochat M. First Aid for the Usmle Step 1 2016. McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.
  • Khazaeni B, Khazaeni L. Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430857/. Updated January 1, 2019. Accessed November 25, 2019.
  • Mosarla RC, et al. Anticoagulation Strategies in Patients With Cancer. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019; 73(11): pp. 1336–1349. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.017.
  • Mount HR, Boyle SD. Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention. Am Fam Physician. 2017; 96(5): pp. 314–322. pmid: 28925647.
  • Bamberger DM. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. Am Fam Physician. 2010; 82(12): pp. 1491–8. pmid: 21166369.
  • Baum J, Chaturvedi N, Netland PA, Dreyer EB. Assessment of Intraocular Pressure by Palpation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995; 119(5): pp. 650–651. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)70227-2.
  • Gerard C, Busl KM. Treatment of Acute Subdural Hematoma. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013; 16(1). doi: 10.1007/s11940-013-0275-0.
  • Helbok R, Kurtz P, Schmidt JM, et al. Effect of mannitol on brain metabolism and tissue oxygenation in severe haemorrhagic stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2010; 82(4): pp. 378–383. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2009.198754.
  • Ropper AH. Management of raised intracranial pressure and hyperosmolar therapy. Pract Neurol. 2014; 14(3): pp. 152–158. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2014-000811.
  • Peixoto AJ. Acute Severe Hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(19): pp. 1843–1852. doi: 10.1056/nejmcp1901117.
  • American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Brain Tumors. https://www.aans.org/en/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Brain-Tumors. Accessed November 24, 2019.
  • Goldman SA. Overview of Intracranial Tumors. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/intracranial-and-spinal-tumors/overview-of-intracranial-tumors. Updated June 1, 2019. Accessed November 25, 2019.
  • Rudkin S, Cerejo R, Tayal A, Goldberg MF. Imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Emerg Radiol. 2018; 25(6): pp. 659–672. doi: 10.1007/s10140-018-1623-x.
  • Rhee DJ. Angle-Closure Glaucoma. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/eye-disorders/glaucoma/angle-closure-glaucoma. Updated October 1, 2019. Accessed November 25, 2019.
  • Villanueva-Meyer JE, et al. Current Clinical Brain Tumor Imaging. Neurosurgery. 2017; 81(3): pp. 397–415. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx103.
  • Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Giant-Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(1): pp. 50–57. doi: 10.1056/nejmcp1214825.
  • Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant-Cell Arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(4): pp. 261–271. doi: 10.1056/nejmra011913.
  • Salvarani C, Cantini F, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. Lancet. 2008; 372(9634): pp. 234–245. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61077-6.
  • Dasgupta B, Borg FA, Hassan N, et al. BSR and BHPR guidelines for the management of giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology. 2010; 49(8): pp. 1594–1597. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keq039a.
  • American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Concussion. https://www.aans.org/en/Patients/Neurosurgical-Conditions-and-Treatments/Concussion. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  • Wilberger JE, Mao G. Sports-Related Concussion. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/traumatic-brain-injury-tbi/sports-related-concussion. Updated November 1, 2017. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  • Anderson CS, Heeley E, Huang Y, et al. Rapid Blood-Pressure Lowering in Patients with Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2013; 368(25): pp. 2355–2365. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1214609.
  • Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) investigators. Antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2010; 38(2): pp. 637–48. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b9e1a5.
  • Qureshi AI, Palesch YY, Barsan WG, et al. Intensive Blood-Pressure Lowering in Patients with Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(11): pp. 1033–1043. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1603460.
  • Saposnik G, Barinagarrementeria F, Brown RD, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Stroke. 2011; 42(4): pp. 1158–1192. doi: 10.1161/str.0b013e31820a8364.
  • Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adults: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Migraine Pharmacotherapies. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2015; 55(1): pp. 3–20. doi: 10.1111/head.12499.
  • Holle D, Obermann M. The role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of headache disorders. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 2013; 6(6): pp. 369–374. doi: 10.1177/1756285613489765.
  • Ravishankar K. The art of history-taking in a headache patient. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2012; 15(5): p. 7. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.99989.
  • Fomchenko EI, Gilmore EJ, Matouk CC, Gerrard JL, Sheth KN. Management of Subdural Hematomas: Part I. Medical Management of Subdural Hematomas. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2018; 20(8). doi: 10.1007/s11940-018-0517-2.
  • Giza CC, Kutcher JS, Ashwal S, et al. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2013; 80(24): pp. 2250–2257. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0b013e31828d57dd.
  • Edlow JA, Panagos PD, Godwin SA, Thomas TL, Decker WW. Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Evaluation and Management of Adult Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Headache. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52(4): pp. 407–436. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.07.001.
  • Einhäupl KM, Villringer A, Mehraein S, et al. Heparin treatment in sinus venous thrombosis. The Lancet. 1991; 338(8767): pp. 597–600. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(91)90607-q.
  • Ferro JM, Canhão P. Acute treatment of cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2008; 10(2): pp. 126–137. doi: 10.1007/s11940-008-0014-0.
  • Rizzoli P, Mullally WJ. Headache. Am J Med. 2018; 131(1): pp. 17–24. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.09.005.
  • Ravishankar K. “WHICH Headache to Investigate, WHEN, and HOW?”. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56(10): pp. 1685–1697. doi: 10.1111/head.12998.
  • Flores-Sánchez BC, Tatham AJ. Acute angle closure glaucoma. Br J Hosp Med. 2019; 80(12): pp. C174–C179. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2019.80.12.c174.
  • Wasay M, Azeemuddin M. Neuroimaging of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Journal of Neuroimaging. 2005; 15(2): pp. 118–128. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2005.tb00296.x.
  • Prum BE, Herndon LW, Moroi SE, et al. Primary Angle Closure Preferred Practice Pattern® Guidelines. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123(1): pp. P1–P40. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.10.049.
  • Uggetti C, et al. Headache in the emergency department: the role of imaging. Neurological Sciences. 2018; 39(S1): pp. 151–152. doi: 10.1007/s10072-018-3379-1.
  • American Headache Society. The American Headache Society Position Statement On Integrating New Migraine Treatments Into Clinical Practice. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2018; 59(1): pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1111/head.13456.
  • Broderick J, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adults. Stroke. 2007; 38(6): pp. 2001–2023. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.107.183689.
  • Claude Hemphill J, Lam A. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2017; 27(S1): pp. 89–101. doi: 10.1007/s12028-017-0453-0.
  • Hainer BL, Matheson EM. Approach to acute headache in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2013; 87(10): pp. 682–7. pmid: 23939446.
  • Burish MJ. Cluster Headache: History, Mechanisms, and Most Importantly, Treatment Options. Practical Neurology. 2017: pp. 34–36. url: https://practicalneurology.com/articles/2017-may/cluster-headache-history-mechanisms-and-most-importantly-treatment-options.
  • May A. Cluster headache: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Lancet. 2005; 366(9488): pp. 843–855. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67217-0.
  • Wei DY, Khalil M, Goadsby PJ. Managing cluster headache. Pract Neurol. 2019; 19(6): pp. 521–528. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2018-002124.
  • Wijemanne S, Jankovic J, Evans RW. Movement Disorders From the Use of Metoclopramide and Other Antiemetics in the Treatment of Migraine. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2015; 56(1): pp. 153–161. doi: 10.1111/head.12712.
  • Al‐Saffar A, Lennernäs H, Hellström PM. Gastroparesis, metoclopramide, and tardive dyskinesia: Risk revisited. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2019: p. e13617. doi: 10.1111/nmo.13617.
  • Cruccu G, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology. 2016; 87(2): pp. 220–228. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000002840.
  • Kirkpatrick PJ, Turner CL, Smith C, Hutchinson PJ, Murray GD. Simvastatin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (STASH): a multicentre randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2014; 13(7): pp. 666–675. doi: 10.1016/s1474-4422(14)70084-5.
  • D’Souza RS, Mercogliano C, Ojukwu E, et al. Effects of prophylactic anticholinergic medications to decrease extrapyramidal side effects in patients taking acute antiemetic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2018; 35(5): pp. 325–331. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-206944.
  • Velat GJ, Kimball MM, Mocco JD, Hoh BL. Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Meta-Analyses in the Literature. World Neurosurgery. 2011; 76(5): pp. 446–454. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.02.030.
  • Zazulia A, Diringer M. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Strategies for Preventing Vasospasm in the Intensive Care Unit. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2017; 38(06): pp. 760–767. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1607990.
  • Silberstein SD. Practice parameter: Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000; 55(6): pp. 754–762. doi: 10.1212/wnl.55.6.754.
  • Beck E, Sieber WJ, Trejo R. Management of cluster headache. Am Fam Physician. 2005; 71(4): pp. 717–24. pmid: 15742909.
  • Robbins MS, Starling AJ, Pringsheim TM, Becker WJ, Schwedt TJ. Treatment of Cluster Headache: The American Headache Society Evidence-Based Guidelines. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56(7): pp. 1093–1106. doi: 10.1111/head.12866.
  • Cluster headache. url: https://ichd-3.org/3-trigeminal-autonomic-cephalalgias/3-1-cluster-headache/ Accessed November 3, 2019.
  • Rains JC, Penzien DB, McCrory DC, Gray RN. Behavioral Headache Treatment: History, Review of the Empirical Literature, and Methodological Critique. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2005; 45(s2): pp. S92–S109. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.4502003.x.
  • Tension-type headache (TTH). url: https://ichd-3.org/2-tension-type-headache/. Accessed November 3, 2019.
  • Shahien R, Saleh SA, Bowirrat A. Intravenous sodium valproate aborts migraine headaches rapidly. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011; 123(4): pp. 257–265. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01394.x.
  • Colman I, Friedman BW, Brown MD, et al. Parenteral dexamethasone for acute severe migraine headache: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials for preventing recurrence. BMJ. 2008; 336(7657): pp. 1359–1361. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39566.806725.be.
  • Oskoui M, Pringsheim T, Holler-Managan Y, et al. Practice guideline update summary: Acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Neurology. 2019; 93(11): pp. 487–499. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000008095.
  • Medication-overuse headache (MOH). url: https://ichd-3.org/8-headache-attributed-to-a-substance-or-its-withdrawal/8-2-medication-overuse-headache-moh/ Accessed November 3, 2019.
  • Orr SL, Friedman BW, Christie S, et al. Management of Adults With Acute Migraine in the Emergency Department: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Parenteral Pharmacotherapies. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56(6): pp. 911–940. doi: 10.1111/head.12835.
  • Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018; 38(1): pp. 1–211. doi: 10.1177/0333102417738202.
  • Rossi P, Lorenzo CD, Faroni J, Cesarino F, Nappi G. Advice Alone Vs. Structured Detoxification Programmes for Medication Overuse Headache: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label Trial in Transformed Migraine Patients With Low Medical Needs. Cephalalgia. 2006; 26(9): pp. 1097–1105. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2006.01175.x.
  • Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2018; 138(17). doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000597.
  • Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al. Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bacterial Meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39(9): pp. 1267–1284. doi: 10.1086/425368.
  • Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018; 49(3). doi: 10.1161/str.0000000000000158.
  • Volpi-Abadie J, Kaye AM, Kaye AD. Serotonin syndrome. Ochsner J. 2013; 13(4): pp. 533–540. pmid: 24358002.
  • Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Am Fam Physician. 2003; 68(6): pp. 1103–1108. pmid: 14524396.
  • McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47(5): pp. 250–258. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092313.
  • Hemphill JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS et al. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Stroke. 2015; 46(7). doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000069.
  • Khondkaryan A, Francis BA. Angle-Closure Glaucoma. https://www.aao.org/munnerlyn-laser-surgery-center/angleclosure-glaucoma-19. Updated December 18, 2013. Accessed March 17, 2017.
  • Connolly ES, Rabinstein AA, Carhuapoma JR, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association. Stroke. 2012; 43(6): pp. 1711–1737. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3182587839.
  • Nelson JA. Local skull trephination before transfer is associated with favorable outcomes in cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma. Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18(1): pp. 78–85. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00949.x.
  • Francis GJ, Becker WJ, Pringsheim TM. Acute and preventive pharmacologic treatment of cluster headache. Neurology. 2010; 75(5): pp. 463–473. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0b013e3181eb58c8.
  • Evers S, Jensen R. Treatment of medication overuse headache - guideline of the EFNS headache panel. European Journal of Neurology. 2011; 18(9): pp. 1115–1121. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03497.x.
  • Tichter AM, Malhi J. Does Magnesium Therapy in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Affect Clinical Outcome?. Ann Emerg Med. 2017; 69(2): pp. 208–209. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.05.027.
  • Han SR. Conservative management of a rapidly calcifying epidural hematoma in a young male patient. Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery. 2015; 2(4): pp. 183–185. doi: 10.1016/j.inat.2015.08.003.
  • CHRISTENSEN TD, LARSEN TB. Precision and accuracy of point-of-care testing coagulometers used for self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation therapy. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2012; 10(2): pp. 251–260. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04568.x.
  • Bisnaire D, Robinson L. Accuracy of levelling intraventricular collection drainage systems. J Neurosci Nurs. 1997; 29(4): pp. 261–8. doi: 10.1097/01376517-199708000-00008.
  • Muralidharan R. External ventricular drains: Management and complications. Surgical Neurology International. 2015; 6(7): p. 271. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.157620.
  • Diringer MN, Bleck TP, Claude Hemphill J, et al. Critical Care Management of Patients Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society’s Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference. Neurocrit Care. 2011; 15(2): pp. 211–240. doi: 10.1007/s12028-011-9605-9.
  • Gigante P, Hwang BY, Appelboom G, Kellner CP, Kellner MA, Connolly ES. External ventricular drainage following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg. 2010; 24(6): pp. 625–632. doi: 10.3109/02688697.2010.505989.
  • Bederson JB, Connolly ES, Batjer HH, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Stroke. 2009; 40(3): pp. 994–1025. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.108.191395.
  • Li H, Pan R, Wang H, et al. Clipping Versus Coiling for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. Stroke. 2013; 44(1): pp. 29–37. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.112.663559.
  • Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006; 58(3 Suppl): pp. S16–24; discussion Si–iv. pmid: 16710968.
  • Seelig JM, Becker DP, Miller JD, Greenberg RP, Ward JD, Choi SC. Traumatic acute subdural hematoma: major mortality reduction in comatose patients treated within four hours. N Engl J Med. 1981; 304(25): pp. 1511–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198106183042503.
  • Won S-Y, Dubinski D, Bruder M, Cattani A, Seifert V, Konczalla J. Acute subdural hematoma in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy: management and outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2017; 43(5): p. E12. doi: 10.3171/2017.8.focus17421.
  • Oertel M, Kelly DF, McArthur D, et al. Progressive hemorrhage after head trauma: predictors and consequences of the evolving injury. J Neurosurg. 2002; 96(1): pp. 109–16. doi: 10.3171/jns.2002.96.1.0109.
  • Altieri M, Di Giambattista R, Di Clemente L, et al. Combined Pharmacological and Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Probable Medication Overuse Headache: A Pilot Study. Cephalalgia. 2009; 29(3): pp. 293–299. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01717.x.
  • Haselsberger K, Pucher R, Auer LM. Prognosis after acute subdural or epidural haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988; 90(3-4): pp. 111–6. doi: 10.1007/bf01560563.
  • Thomas S, Makris M. The reversal of anticoagulation in clinical practice . Clin Med. 2018; 18(4): pp. 314–319. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.18-4-314.
  • Rizos T, Jenetzky E, Herweh C, Unterberg A, Hacke W, Veltkamp R. Fast point-of-care coagulometer guided reversal of oral anticoagulation at the bedside hastens management of acute subdural hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2010; 13(3): pp. 321–5. doi: 10.1007/s12028-010-9443-1.
  • Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al. Surgical management of acute epidural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006; 58(3 Suppl): pp. S7–15; discussion Si–iv. pmid: 16710967.
  • Makris M, Van Veen JJ, Tait CR, Mumford AD, Laffan M. Guideline on the management of bleeding in patients on antithrombotic agents. Br J Haematol. 2012; 160(1): pp. 35–46. doi: 10.1111/bjh.12107.
  • Frontera JA, Lewin III JJ, Rabinstein AA, et al. Guideline for Reversal of Antithrombotics in Intracranial Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2015; 24(1): pp. 6–46. doi: 10.1007/s12028-015-0222-x.
  • Bendtsen L, Zakrzewska JM, Abbott J, et al. European Academy of Neurology guideline on trigeminal neuralgia. European Journal of Neurology. 2019; 26(6): pp. 831–849. doi: 10.1111/ene.13950.
  • Gronseth G, Cruccu G, Alksne J, et al. Practice Parameter: The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Neurology. 2008; 71(15): pp. 1183–1190. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000326598.83183.04.
  • Goh BT, Poon CY, Peck RHL. The importance of routine magnetic resonance imaging in trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 2001; 92(4): pp. 424–429. doi: 10.1067/moe.2001.115130.
  • Trigeminal neuralgia. https://ichd-3.org/13-painful-cranial-neuropathies-and-other-facial-pains/13-1-trigeminal-neuralgia/13-1-1-classical-trigeminal-neuralgia/. Accessed November 3, 2019.
  • Krymchantowski A, Barbosa J. Prednisone as Initial Treatment of Analgesic-Induced Daily Headache. Cephalalgia. 2000; 20(2): pp. 107–113. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-2982.2000.00028.x.
  • Matthew T. Whitehead, et al. American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Headache. https://acsearch.acr.org/docs/69482/Narrative/. Updated January 1, 2019. Accessed January 13, 2020.
last updated 01/16/2020
{{uncollapseSections(['MoXMc_', 'ooX01_', 'dQcoEX0', 'JoXs1_', 'roXfW_', 'HoXKW_'])}}