Last updated: October 20, 2022

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Lymphadenopathy is the enlargement of lymph nodes and most commonly occurs during benign, inflammatory processes. In pediatric patients, lymphadenopathy is usually caused by upper respiratory tract infections (see “Cervical lymphadenopathy”). Painful, enlarged lymph nodes in adults, paired with signs of localized or systemic infection, are generally caused by some type of bacterial or viral infection. Malignancy must be considered in the case of painless, progressive lymph node swelling in the absence of signs of infection, in which case further diagnostic testing (e.g., serology, imaging, biopsy, and histological analysis) is necessary in order to make the diagnosis.


To remember the different causes of lymphadenopathy, think “MIAMI”: Malignancy (e.g., lymphomas), Infection (e.g., TB), Autoimmune disease (e.g., SLE), Miscellaneous (e.g., sarcoidosis), and Iatrogenic (medications).


Medical history

Physical examination

Characteristics Likely benign or inflammatory cause Likely malignant or mycobacterial cause










Cervical (anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle), inguinal

Cervical (dorsal to the sternocleidomastoid muscle), supraclavicular


Acute enlargement without long-term progression

Slow development combined with progressive enlargement

Soft, mobile, and tender lymph nodes are likely benign. Hard, nonmobile, nontender lymph nodes should raise concern for malignancy. Firm, nontender lymph nodes in patients with sarcoidosis or tuberculosis are exceptions.A palpable, firm lymph node in the left supraclavicular area is called a Virchow node and is classically associated with gastric carcinoma.

Further diagnostic testing


Differential diagnoses according to characteristics of enlarged lymph nodes [2]

Painful Painless

Localized lymphadenopathy

Generalized lymphadenopathy (enlargement of ≥ 2 noncontiguous lymph node groups)

Generalized lymphadenopathy is defined as the enlargement of more than two noncontiguous lymph node groups.

Differential diagnoses according to location of enlarged lymph nodes

See “Lymph node clusters in “Lymphatic system.”

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

  1. Gaddey HL, Riegel AM. Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis.. Am Fam Physician. 2016; 94 (11): p.896-903.
  2. Gaddey HL, Riegel AM. Unexplained Lymphadenopathy: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis. Am Fam Physician. 2016; 94 (11): p.896-903.
  3. Kanwar VS. Lymphadenopathy. Lymphadenopathy. New York, NY: WebMD. Updated: February 14, 2017. Accessed: March 27, 2017.
  4. Physical Examinations II. Lymph Node Exam. Updated: January 1, 2018. Accessed: July 5, 2018.
  5. Lymphadenopathy. Updated: January 1, 2019. Accessed: May 14, 2019.
  6. Ferrer R. Lymphadenopathy: differential diagnosis and evaluation.. Am Fam Physician. 1998; 58 (6): p.1313-20.
  7. Lucey BC, Stuhlfaut JW, Soto JA. Mesenteric lymph nodes seen at imaging: causes and significance. Radiographics. 2005; 25 (2): p.351-365. doi: 10.1148/rg.252045108 . | Open in Read by QxMD

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