Last updated: November 9, 2022

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Acromegaly is a condition in which benign pituitary adenomas lead to an excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In adults, whose epiphyseal plates are closed, the disease causes enlarged hands and feet, coarsened facial features, and pathological growth of internal organs. If the condition occurs in children, before epiphyseal plate closure, it is known as gigantism, which is discussed in a separate article. The first step in diagnosing acromegaly is to measure IGF-1 levels. Further testing includes an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH levels, and evaluation of pituitary tumors via cranial MRI. Management consists of transsphenoidal adenomectomy for operable tumors, or GH-inhibiting medication and radiotherapy if surgery is contraindicated or unsuccessful. Adequate treatment is vital to reduce the risk of complications, such as cardiovascular disease and cerebral aneurysms, as these may considerably increase mortality.

Epidemiologytoggle arrow icon

  • Prevalence: 1–9/100,000 in the US [1]
  • Age of onset: 3rd decade of life (mean age at diagnosis usually 40–45 years) [1]
  • Sex: = [1]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Pathophysiologytoggle arrow icon

Excess GH secretion before the conclusion of longitudinal growth (i.e., prior to epiphyseal plate closure) leads to pituitary gigantism with a possible height of ≥ 2 m. After epiphyseal plate closure, GH excess causes acromegaly, but no change in height!

Clinical featurestoggle arrow icon

Consider acromegaly in patients who report having had to increase hat, shoe, glove, and ring sizes in the past!

Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon

  • Hormone analysis [5][6]
    • Serum IGF-1 concentration: the best single test
    • OGTT with baseline GH and measure GH after 2 hours: the most specific test
      • If GH suppressed: acromegaly ruled out
      • If GH not suppressed: confirmed acromegaly; conduct pituitary MRI to determine the source of excess GH
  • Pituitary MRI [5][6]
    • Imaging modality of choice
    • Usually shows a visible mass: confirmed GH-secreting pituitary adenoma
    • If normal: screen for an extrapituitary cause (e.g., CT scan of the chest and abdomen, measure GHRH)

Differential diagnosestoggle arrow icon

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Treatmenttoggle arrow icon

Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the method of choice for treating acromegaly. In patients with inoperable tumors or unsuccessful surgery, medication and radiotherapy are indicated to reduce tumor size and limit the effects of GH and IGF-1. [5][6]

Danger of hypopituitarism following surgery or radiotherapy!

Complicationstoggle arrow icon

Complications lead to increased mortality. [8]

We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Broder MS, Chang E, Cherepanov D, Neary MP, Ludlam WH. INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF ACROMEGALY IN THE UNITED STATES: A CLAIMS-BASED ANALYSIS. Endocrine Practice. 2016; 22 (11): p.1327-1335.doi: 10.4158/ep161397.or . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Katznelson L, Laws ER, Melmed S, et al. Acromegaly: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2014; 99 (11): p.3933-3951.doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2700 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  3. Ghazi AA, Amirbaigloo A, Dezfooli AA, et al. Ectopic acromegaly due to growth hormone releasing hormone. Endocrine. 2012; 43 (2): p.293-302.doi: 10.1007/s12020-012-9790-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Hasan W, Cowen T, Barnett PS, Elliot E, Coskeran P, Bouloux PM. The sweating apparatus in growth hormone deficiency following treatment with r-hGH and in acromegaly. Auton Neurosci. 2001; 89 (1-2): p.100-109.doi: 10.1016/S1566-0702(01)00257-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Katznelson L, Atkinson J, Cook D, Ezzat S, Hamrahian A, Miller K. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acromegaly-2011 Update. Endocrine Practice. 2011; 17 (Supplement 4): p.1-44.doi: 10.4158/ep.17.s4.1 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Melmed S, Bronstein MD, Chanson P, et al. A Consensus Statement on acromegaly therapeutic outcomes. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2018; 14 (9): p.552-561.doi: 10.1038/s41574-018-0058-5 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  7. Rowland NC, Aghi MK. Radiation treatment strategies for acromegaly. Neurosurg Focus. 2010; 29 (4): p.E12.doi: 10.3171/2010.7.FOCUS10124 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Colao A, Ferone D, Marzullo P, Lombardi G. Systemic complications of acromegaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. Endocr Rev. 2004; 25 (1): p.102-152.doi: 10.1210/er.2002-0022 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  9. Capatina C, Wass JA. 60 Years of Neuroendocrinology: Acromegaly. J Endocrinol. 2015; 226 (2): p.T141-160.doi: 10.1530/JOE-15-0109 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  10. Dworakowska D, Grossman AB. Colonic Cancer and Acromegaly. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2019; 10.doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00390 . | Open in Read by QxMD

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