• Clinical science

Sjogren syndrome

Summary

Sjogren syndrome is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that occurs mainly in middle-aged women. The cause of primary Sjogren syndrome is unknown, whereas secondary Sjogren syndrome is associated with underlying autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis). As the immune system mainly attacks lacrimal and salivary glands, patients typically present with xerophthalmia (dry eyes) and xerostomia (dry mouth), the combination of which is also known as sicca syndrome. The disease may also involve the skin, joints, internal organs, and nervous system. It is diagnosed via the detection of autoantibodies (anti-SSA/Ro, ANA) and salivary gland biopsy. Management focuses on supportive measures and, in more severe cases, immunosuppressants.

Epidemiology

  • Sex: > (∼ 9:1)
  • Age of onset: : typically 40–60 years

References:[1]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiology

References:[1][2]

Clinical features

Glandular symptoms

Extraglandular symptoms

The classical presentation is a middle-aged woman with dry eyes and a dry mouth, accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus!

References:[1][3][4][5][6][7]

Diagnostics

Sjogren syndrome is diagnosed based on the typical clinical features and is confirmed via detection of specific antibodies and a pathologically low tear production. Biopsy of the salivary gland is the most accurate test, but is not needed to establish the diagnosis.

Laboratory tests

Eye examinations

Biopsy

References:[8][1][4][9]

Treatment

  • Treat the underlying disease in secondary Sjogren syndrome.
  • For dry mouth
  • For dry eyes
    • Avoid dry environments (e.g., shield eyes from wind, keep air humid)
    • Artificial tears
    • In moderate disease: topical immunosuppression (e.g., cyclosporine); , lubricants
  • Treatment of extraglandular disease depends on the specific manifestation: arthralgia may be managed with NSAIDs or hydroxychloroquine, whereas neurological manifestations, for instance, often require aggressive immunosuppression.

References:[10][11][12]

Complications

Increased risk of lymphomas (B-cell lymphoma, MALT lymphoma)!

References:[1][13]

We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.