Oligohydramnios is a condition in which there is less amniotic fluid than is expected for the gestational age. Etiologies include fetal conditions such as renal tract abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital infections, and maternal conditions such as placental insufficiency, late or postterm pregnancy, and premature rupture of the membranes. Oligohydramnios is suspected if abdominal girth and are smaller than expected for gestational age, but ultrasound to measure the amniotic fluid index is required to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment varies depending on gestational age; amnioinfusion can be used to reduce complications in early pregnancy, whereas induction of labor may be appropriate in late pregnancy. Complications include intrauterine growth restriction, Potter sequence, and complications during labor and delivery, e.g., umbilical cord compression.
- Small abdominal girth and uterine size for gestational age
- Ultrasound: Determine amniotic fluid and assess for fetal anomalies.
Amniotic fluid index (AFI): a semiquantitative tool used to assess amniotic fluid volume (normal range: 8–18 cm)
- Determined by dividing the uterus into 4 quadrants, holding the transducer perpendicular to the patient's spine, and adding up the deepest vertical pocket of fluid in each quadrant
- Oligohydramnios: ≤ 5
- In pregnancies < 24 weeks and multiple gestations, the single deepest pocket is used (normal range: 2–8 cm).
- Intrauterine growth restriction (due to diminished mobility of the fetus)
- Birth complications (e.g., umbilical cord compression)
- Pathophysiology: oligohydramnios → intrauterine compression and decreased amniotic fluid ingestions → ↓ space for fetal development → internal and external deformations
- Clinical features
Potter babies cannot Pee.
We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.