- Clinical science
Torticollis is a clinical finding in which the neck twists to one side, with an associated asymmetric head or chin position. It is characterized by abnormal tone or length of the cervical muscles, which may be congenital or acquired, and can be the result of a variety of mechanisms (e.g., trauma, muscle tone disorders, congenital muscle tightness, extrinsic masses, ocular, etc.). Torticollis is predominantly a clinical diagnosis. Imaging may be required to determine the underlying etiology. Initial treatment consists of physical therapy (exercises for muscle lengthening and balance) and medication for dystonia (anticholinergics, benzodiazepines, baclofen). Surgical release is used for severe cases involving muscle shortening.
Congenital (also referred to as infantile torticollis)
- Age: 2–4 weeks
- Sex: ♂ > ♀ (3:2)
- Wry neck/stiff neck : the most common type of torticollis in adults
Idiopathic cervical dystonia
- Age of onset: 30–50 years
- Sex: ♀ > ♂ (2:1)
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
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Acute torticollis (wry neck)
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Other forms of acquired torticollis