• Clinical science

Mitral valve stenosis


Mitral stenosis (MS) is a valvular anomaly of the mitral valve that leads to obstruction of blood flow into the left ventricle. The most common cause of MS is rheumatic fever. The clinical manifestations depend on the extent of stenosis: reduced mitral opening leads to progressive congestion behind the stenotic valve. Initial dilation of the left atrium (complications: atrial fibrillations, emboli) is followed by progressive congestion of the lungs and subsequent cardiac asthma (coughing, dyspnea). Acute decompensation can cause pulmonary edema. Echocardiography is the main diagnostic tool for evaluating the mitral valve apparatus, left atrial size, and pulmonary pressure. In the event of high grade and/or symptomatic stenosis, percutaneous valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement is often required.



Clinical features





ACE inhibitors and other afterload-reducing drugs are contraindicated because they cause dilation of peripheral blood vessels, which may lead to cardiovascular decompensation!


We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

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  • 3. Dima C. Mitral Stenosis. In: Mitral Stenosis. New York, NY: WebMD. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155724-overview. Updated November 6, 2014. Accessed February 26, 2017.
  • 4. Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 63(22): pp. e57–185. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.02.536.
  • Herold G. Internal Medicine. Cologne, Germany: Herold G; 2014.
last updated 09/08/2020
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