• Clinical science

Pulmonary examination


The examination of the pulmonary system is a fundamental part of the physical examination that consists of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation (in that order). Recognition of surface landmarks and their relationship to underlying structures is essential. The physical examination of the pulmonary system begins with the patient seated comfortably on the examination table and his/her upper body completely exposed. The chest and the patient's breathing pattern are then inspected, followed by palpation of the chest wall, percussion of the thorax, and auscultation of the lung fields. A carefully recorded medical history and thorough physical examination allow for differential diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy.

See also differential diagnoses of dyspnea.


The following should be assessed:

  1. Breathing pattern
  2. Increased effort of breathing
  3. Peripheral signs of respiratory dysfunction
  4. Abnormalities in the shape of the thorax
  5. Sputum production or secretions, if any
    • White and translucent: viral infection (for example, bronchitis that presents with a typical early-morning cough)
    • White and foamy: pulmonary edema
    • Yellow-green: bacterial infection
    • Green: an indication of a pseudomonal infection
    • Grayish: pneumoconiosis, a waning bacterial infection
    • Blackish-brown: possibly old blood; should be further investigated (can also be a harmless incidental finding)
    • Friable: tuberculosis, actinomycosis
    • Hemoptysis: see section below
  6. In newborn and infants
    • Jugular, sternal, and intercostal retraction
    • Nasal flaring or flaring of the nostrils
    • Neck extension



A chest x-ray, to determine the underlying pathology, is mandatory in all patients with hemoptysis. Patients with massive hemoptysis require stabilization before imaging!


  • Evaluate areas of tenderness or bruising
  • Symmetry of chest expansion
    • Place both hands on the patient's back at the level of the 10th ribs with thumbs pointing medially and parallel to the rib cage.
    • As the patient inhales, evaluate for asymmetric movement of your thumbs.
  • Tactile fremitus
    • Ask the patient to say “toy boat” and feel for vibrations transmitted throughout the chest wall.
    • Can be asymmetrically decreased in effusion, obstruction, or pneumothorax, among others
    • Can be asymmetrically increased in pneumonia





Physiological breath sounds

Pathological breath sounds

  • Also known as adventitious or added sounds
  • Consider secretions (such as in bronchitis) if breath sounds clear after coughing

Types of pathological breath sounds

Transmitted sounds

  • Bronchophony
    • Increased transmission of voice sounds
    • Ask patient to say “ninety-nine” in a normal voice while auscultating.
    • An asymmetric increase in voice transmission suggests a collapsed lung or atelectasis.
  • Egophony
    • Ask the patient to say “ee” while auscultating.
    • If it sounds like “A” rather than “E”, this is called egophony and suggests lobar pneumonia.
  • Whispered pectoriloquy
    • Ask patient to whisper “ninety-nine” while auscultating.
    • Normally this is barely audible.
    • Clearly audible in the presence of pulmonary consolidation


Overview of pulmonary examination findings

Main symptom Tactile fremitus Percussion Auscultation (breath sounds) Tracheal deviation

Normal Resonant Vesicular None
Pleural effusion Dyspnea may be present Decreased Dull Decreased To the opposite side of the lesion (no deviation in small effusions)
Pulmonary edema

Severe dyspnea

Possibly increased Dull Fine or coarse crackles, depending on severity None
Simple pneumothorax Acute dyspnea Decreased or absent Hyperresonant

Decreased or absent

Tension pneumothorax Severe dyspnea Decreased or absent Hyperresonant Decreased or absent To the opposite side of the lesion
Bronchial asthma1 Paroxysmal attacks of dyspnea, wheezing



Wheeze, a prolonged expiratory phase, possibly decreased breath sounds

Chronic bronchitis1 Chronic cough Decreased Hyperresonant

Wheezing, rhonchi

Emphysema Chronic dyspnea Decreased Hyperresonant Decreased None
Pneumonia2 Fever, dyspnea Increased Dull

Coarse crackles

Lung fibrosis Cachexia and weakness, dyspnea Normal or slightly increased


Basal inspiratory crackles To the side of the lesion
Atelectasis Pain may be present Decreased Dull Decreased To the side of the lesion
Pulmonary embolism1

Acute dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, tachypnea


Normal Normal None

Hemoptysis, constitutional symptoms (weight loss, fever, night sweats)

Possibly decreased

Possibly dull Possibly decreased To the opposite side of the lesion

The following conditions frequently complicate the aforementioned pulmonary disease: 1pneumonia, 2pleural effusion, 3atelectasis.

See also dyspnea.


  • 1. Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst WJ, Silverman ME, Morrison G. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Boston, MA: Butterworths; 1990.
  • 2. Bickley L. Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History-Taking. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.
  • 3. Sarkar M, Mahesh D, Madabhavi I. Digital clubbing. Lung India. 2012; 29(4): p. 354. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.102824.
  • 4. Amirana M, Frater R, Tirschwell P, Janis M, Bloomberg A, State D. An aggressive surgical approach to significant hemoptysis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1968; 97(2): pp. 187–92. doi: 10.1164/arrd.1968.97.2.187.
  • 5. Bohadana A, Izbicki G, Kraman SS. Fundamentals of lung auscultation. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370(8): pp. 744–751. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1302901.
  • Herold G. Internal Medicine. Cologne, Germany: Herold G; 2014.
last updated 11/02/2020
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