- Clinical science
Slipped capital femoposterior and inferior displacement of the femoral head in relation to the femoral neck at the proximal femoral growth plate. It occurs most commonly in adolescent males. While the etiology is not entirely understood, multiple risk factors such as obesity and endocrine disorders have been identified. SCFE may have an acute or insidious onset, with hip pain, limping, and restricted movement of the affected hip. If the patient is unable to walk then the SCFE is considered unstable, which increases the risk of complications such as avascular necrosis. Conventional x-ray confirms the displacement. Surgical fixation of the femoral head is the only treatment.iphysis (SCFE) refers to the
The exact etiology is still unknown. However, there are some risk factors that increase the likelihood of SCFE: 
- Poor cartilaginous maturation and endochondral ossification in the epiphyseal growth plate leads to unusually wide and unstable proximal femoral epiphyseal growth plate 
- Increased shear force (e.g., due to obesity, trauma) across the growth plate leads to posterior and inferior displacement of femoral epiphysis from the femoral neck 
To visualize the displacement of the femoral head in slipped capital femoral epiphysis, imagine a scoop of ice cream that slips from its cone.
- Chronic (3 weeks to several months)
- Acute on chronic (chronic with acute exacerbations)
- Location: bilateral in 20–40% of cases 
- Dull pain in the medial thigh, knee , groin, or hip (often left > right)
- Restricted range of motion
- Stability of the physis
- Widening of the joint space
- The femoral head is displaced posteriorly and inferiorly in relation to the femoral neck.
- Klein line not passing the femoral head: It is a straight line drawn along the superior border of the femoral neck that normally passes through the femoral head.
- Frog leg projection line not passing the femoral head: It is a line drawn through the center of the epiphysis that normally should pass through the center of the femoral neck.
- Southwick method (for measurement of the slip angle/severity): refers to the tilt of the femoral neck in relation to the femoral head
- Rules out underlying medical conditions (e.g., rickets)
- Determines degree of displacement
- Laboratory tests: to exclude endocrinopathies in patients with an atypical age of onset or short stature
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- Definition: : snapping of the iliotibial band or gluteus maximus over the greater trochanter (external), or snapping of the iliopsoas tendon over the iliopectineal eminence (internal), typically seen in young athletes and dancers
- Sex: ♀ > ♂
- Peak incidence: 15–40 years
- Clinical features
- Physical therapy, rest, ice
- Injection of local anesthetic
- If complaints persist: surgical treatment
The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.