- Clinical science
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that may be triggered by a number of factors (e.g., alcohol, stress). The etiology is unclear; however, the disease is more common in females and middle-aged individuals with fair skin. The disease presents with central facial erythema, telangiectasias, and papules/pustules. In severe cases, the nose develops a large, bulbous shape (rhinophyma). In contrast to acne, are not present. Treatment options include the avoidance of triggers, topical agents (e.g., metronidazole, brimonidine) for mild disease, and oral agents (e.g., metronidazole) for more severe disease.
- Sex: ♀ > ♂
- Age range: 30–60 years
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
The cause of rosacea is not entirely understood; , but is especially associated with triggers that increase body temperature.
- Hot weather, hot drinks, spicy food
- Stress, alcohol, nicotine
- Demodex mites
There are four different clinical subtypes of rosacea:
- Facial flushing
- Persistent erythema of the face (together with telangiectasias)
- Papulopustular rosacea
- Phymatous rosacea
- Ocular rosacea
In contrast to acne, comedones are NOT present!
- Behavioral: avoid trigger factors (see "Etiology" above)
- Medical therapy
- Laser therapy: for , , and phymatous rosacea
- Surgical therapy: for phymatous rosacea; includes electrocautery and dermabrasion
- Eye involvement (common)
- Small brown papules, especially around the mouth and eyes
- Granulomatous lesions may occur on their own, without other symptoms of rosacea
- Histology: tuberculoid granulomas
All patients with rosacea and concurrent eye problems should have their eyes examined by an ophthalmologist!
We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.