- Clinical science
Priapism refers to a sustained erection that lasts for more than four hours and is not the result of sexual excitation. Based on etiopathogenesis, priapism may be classified as either low-flow or high-flow. Low-flow priapism, which is caused by inadequate venous outflow from the corpus cavernosum, results in painful penile ischemia. Low-flow priapism in adults most commonly arises as an adverse effect from treating erectile dysfunction (e.g., sildenafil), while sickle cell disease is the most common cause in children. High-flow priapism is less common and usually the result of perineal trauma. High-flow priapism is not associated with penile ischemia and is therefore painless. Penile blood gas analysis and doppler ultrasound of the penis allow high-flow priapism to be distinguished from low-flow priapism. Low-flow priapism is an acute urological emergency that must be treated within 12 hours; treatment involves aspiration of blood from the corpus cavernosum and injection of phenylephrine. If priapism does not subside, surgical therapy to decompress the penis is indicated. When treated within 12 hours, complete restoration of erectile function is possible; delayed treatment leads to cavernous fibrosis and irreparable damage with erectile dysfunction. Non‑ischemic priapism usually does not require treatment.
- Incidence: ∼ 1–3/100,000
- Priapism can affect individuals of all age groups but two peaks are observed at 5–10 years and 20–50 years .
- Race: no racial predilection
- Sex: Priapism is almost exclusively a male disease; very rarely clitoral priapism may occur.
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
- More common
- Hypercoagulable states
- Autonomic dysfunction: spinal cord stenosis, autonomic neuropathy, cauda equina syndrome
- Renal pelvic tumors: bladder cancer, prostatic cancer
- Less common
- Excessive arterial influx with sufficient venous outflow
- No penile ischemia
- Low-flow (ischemic) priapism
- High-flow (non-ischemic) priapism
- One or both of the following tests are used to differentiate high-flow from low-flow priapism:
Penile blood gas analysis
- Low-flow priapism: dark blood with hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis
- High-flow priapism: bright red blood with normal arterial values
- Low-flow priapism: poor arterial influx
- High-flow priapism: high arterial influx and adequate outflow
- Penile blood gas analysis
- Complete blood count and differential count, peripheral blood smear
Low-flow priapism is a urological emergency. Rapid treatment of low-flow priapism within 12 hours is crucial because delayed treatment may result in permanent damage (cavernous body fibrosis with irreversible impotence)!
- First-line therapy
- Second-line therapy (if detumescence does not occur): decompression of the penis by creating a shunt between the corpus cavernosum and either the glans or the corpus spongiosum (e.g., Winter or Ebbehoj techniques)
- Supportive measures
- Usually no treatment is necessary.
- Persistent high-flow priapism can be treated electively with selective arterial embolization.
- Early treatment (within 12 hours) usually allows for complete recovery.
- Late treatment almost always leads to penile fibrosis and .
- High-flow priapism has a good prognosis, with most cases resolving spontaneously.