- Clinical science
Laryngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor of the larynx that occurs most commonly in older men. Smoking and alcohol consumption are the most important risk factors. Based on the location of the tumor, laryngeal carcinomas may be classified as glottic (involving the vocal cords), supraglottic, or subglottic carcinomas. Glottic carcinoma, which is the most common form, presents early with hoarseness and is usually associated with a good prognosis. Supraglottic and subglottic carcinomas present late and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. Direct laryngoscopy is required to visualize the tumor and assess vocal cord mobility. Imaging of the neck may be required to determine the extent of the tumor and check for spread to cervical lymph nodes. The method of treatment depends on the site and stage of the tumor. Early stages are treated by either radiotherapy or endoscopic laser resection with the goal of preserving the voice. Late stages require some form of laryngectomy. After laryngectomy patients must undergo vocal rehabilitation, which involves using vibrations in the pharynx to produce speech sounds.
- Sex: ♂ > ♀
- Age of onset: 40–70 years
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
- Glottic carcinoma/vocal cord carcinoma (most common form: approximately 60% of cases)
- Supraglottic carcinoma (approximately 40% of cases)
- Subglottic carcinoma (approximately 1% of cases)
Laryngeal carcinomas are almost always squamous cell cancers (SCC)!