• Clinical science

Hypogonadism

Abstract

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired functional activity of the gonads. Both males and females can be affected. It is classified as either primary or secondary: Primary hypogonadism (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) is typically caused by congenital disorders of sex development affecting the gonads (e.g., Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome) or acquired gonadal injury (e.g., irradiation, infection). Secondary hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) is most often caused by pituitary or hypothalamic disorders (e.g, craniopharyngioma, Kallmann syndrome). Characteristic features in males include testicular hypoplasia, gynecomastia, and absent facial hair growth, while females commonly present with amenorrhea. Following clinical evaluation, the diagnosis is confirmed with hormone tests, and genetic testing may be considered. Treatment involves management of the underlying cause and hormone replacement therapy.

Etiology

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired functional activity of the gonads.

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism)

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (secondary hypogonadism)

Pathophysiology

Diminished functional activity of the gonads → reduced biosynthesis of sex hormones → impaired secondary sexual characteristics and infertility

Clinical features

Diagnostics

Treatment

last updated 11/06/2017
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