• Clinical science

Coronary artery bypass grafting

Abstract

Coronary artery bypass grafting (or CABG) is a cardiac revascularization technique used to treat patients with significant, symptomatic stenosis of the coronary artery (or its branches). The stenosed segment is bypassed using an arterial (e.g., internal thoracic artery) or venous (e.g., great saphenous vein) autograft, re-establishing blood flow to the ischemic areas of the myocardium. This may be performed either with the help of a heart-lung bypass machine (traditional CABG, performed via a thoracotomy), or on a beating heart (off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive direct CABG). In addition to general surgical risks, the main complications associated with bypass grafting are bypass occlusion and postpericardiotomy syndrome. The procedure provides more effective symptom relief than medical management and is superior to PCI in multivessel coronary disease.

Indications

Indication for CABG is established after careful consideration of the clinical features, coronary catheterization findings, cardiac function, and the patient's general condition.

  • High-grade left main stem coronary artery stenosis
  • Significant stenosis (> 70%) of the proximal left anterior descending artery, with 2-vessel or 3-vessel disease
  • Symptomatic 2-vessel or 3-vessel disease
  • Disabling angina despite maximal medical therapy
  • Poor left ventricular function with myocardium that can return to function on revascularization
  • Postinfarct angina
  • Indications for emergency CABG
    • Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with ongoing ischemia that is unresponsive to medical therapy/PCI
    • STEMI with inadequate response to all nonsurgical therapy
    • Significant ongoing ischemia, traumatic complications, or threatened occlusion in STEMI, after a failed PCI or previous CABG

References:[1][2]

Contraindications

There are no absolute contraindications for CABG. Relative contraindications include:

References:[1][3]

We list the most important contraindications. The selection is not exhaustive.

Procedure/application

  • Overview of steps
    • Thoracotomy via a midline sternotomy cardiopulmonary bypass; (heart-lung machine) → cardioplegic arrest of the heartanastomosis of the bypass vessels distal to the coronary artery stenosis using autologous vessels
  • Types of grafts
  • Types of CABG
    • Traditional CABG
    • Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery
    • Minimally invasive direct, or totally endoscopic CABG
  • Alternate procedure: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
    • Advantages: decreased periprocedural morbidity, decreased cost, decreased hospital stay
    • Disadvantages: higher rate of patients requiring reintervention
    • CABG is proven to be a superior long-term form of revascularization in high-risk multivessel disease (diabetics or low LV function), certain cases of severe two-vessel CAD, and in all patients with three-vessel CAD.
    • PCI is preferred in cases with symptomatic low-risk obstruction (single vessel, mild double vessel obstruction).

Postoperative long-term treatment with antiplatelet drugs (e.g., 100 mg aspirin 1-0-0) is required to reduce the risk of subsequent myocardial ischemia!

References:[1]

Complications

Cardiac complications

Mediastinal complications

Other

  • Complications resulting from sternotomy (wound infection, sternal osteomyelitis, etc.)
  • Postoperative renal failure
  • Neurologic deficits and coma

References:[1][4][5]

We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

Outcome and prognosis

  • Prognosis following CABG depends on a variety of factors, such as anatomical location and severity of the stenoses, presence of comorbidities, patient age, and preoperative levels of activity.
  • Successful grafts typically last 8–15 years; and provide an improved chance of survival (decreased 5-year mortality, especially in patients with triple vessel disease).
  • Further progression of arteriosclerosis may still occur after CABG.