Australian bat lyssavirus infection is an extremely rare rabies-like condition that is endemic to Australia. It is caused by infection with the Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) that is transmitted via infected bats (e.g., bites, scratches). After an incubation period of 3–8 weeks, ABLV infection manifests with flu-like symptoms (e.g., headache, fever, fatigue), followed 1–2 weeks later by severe symptoms, including altered state of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis, and hydrophobia.Diagnosis is confirmed through PCR. Like rabies, ABLV infection is fatal once it breaks out. All animal bites and scratches should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. If exposure to ABLV is suspected (i.e., wounds from bats), postexposure prophylaxis using human rabies immunoglobulin and/or rabies vaccine should be initiated immediately.
- Extremely rare 
- Individuals who have contact with bats (e.g., due to occupation) are at higher risk.
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
Australian bat lyssavirus
- Member of the Lyssavirus genus that is closely related to the rabies virus
- Endemic in Australia (every kind of bat is a potential carrier of ABLV)
- Transmitted via bat bites, scratches, or saliva that comes in direct contact with mucous membranes or damaged skin
- Incubation period: 3–8 weeks 
- Initially unspecific flu-like symptoms (e.g., headache, fever, fatigue)
- Symptoms similar to rabies develop within 1–2 weeks, including: 
- Altered state of consciousness
- Hyperactivity, convulsions
- Aerophobia, hydrophobia
Postexposure prophylaxis 
- Wound management: thorough washing and application of an appropriate antiseptic solution (e.g., povidone-iodine, ethanol)
- Administration of human rabies immunoglobulin and/or rabies vaccine
- There is no specific treatment available.
Untreated ABLV infection is fatal. 
- Rabies vaccination
- Avoiding contact with bats