Three days after undergoing outpatient percutaneous coronary intervention with stent placement in the right coronary artery, a 60-year-old woman has left-sided painful facial swelling. The pain is worse while chewing. The patient has hypertension and coronary artery disease. Her current medications include enalapril, metoprolol, aspirin, clopidogrel, simvastatin, and a multivitamin. She does not smoke or drink alcohol. Her temperature is 38.1°C (100.5°F), pulse is 72/min, respirations are 16/min, and blood pressure is 128/86 mm Hg. Examination shows swelling and tenderness of the left parotid gland. Intraoral examination shows erythema with scant purulent drainage. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
A 75-year-old man is brought to the emergency department because of worsening chest pain and dyspnea for 5 hours. Six days ago, he fell in the shower and since then he has had mild pain in his left chest. Three years ago, he had a myocardial infarction and received two stents. He has hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis of both knees. His sister has factor V Leiden deficiency. He has smoked one pack of cigarettes daily for 59 years and drinks one alcoholic beverage daily. Current medications include ramipril, simvastatin, aspirin, metformin, and metoprolol. He appears pale and anxious. His temperature is 36.5°C (97.7°F), pulse is 108/min, respirations are 30/min, and blood pressure is 115/58 mm Hg. Pulse oximetry on room air shows an oxygen saturation of 88%. Examination shows decreased breath sounds and dullness to percussion over the left lung base. There is a 3 cm (1.2 in) hematoma over the left lower chest. An x-ray of the chest shows fractures of the left 8th and 9th rib, increased opacity of the left lung, and mild tracheal deviation to the right. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
A 26-year-old woman is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after being involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision in which she was a restrained passenger. On arrival, she is lethargic and incoherent. She has severe facial lacerations and is in respiratory distress. Her pulse is 130/min, respirations are 29/min, and blood pressure is 95/60 mm Hg. Pulse oximetry on room air shows an oxygen saturation of 70%. Examination shows multiple facial lacerations. There is dullness to percussion and decreased breath sounds over the left lung base. Abdominal examination shows diffuse tenderness with no guarding or rebound. Bowel sounds are normal. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Her hemoglobin concentration is 12.1 g/dL. An x-ray of the chest shows a fractured left second rib, depression of the left mainstem bronchus, deviation of the nasogastric tube to the right, and a widened mediastinum. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Thoracic A 74-year-old man is brought to the emergency department because of increasing abdominal pain and distention for 3 days. The pain is diffuse and colicky, and he describes it as 4 out of 10 in intensity. His last bowel movement was 5 days ago. He has not undergone any previous abdominal surgeries. He has hypertension, chronic lower back pain, coronary artery disease, and hypercholesterolemia. Prior to admission, his medications were enalapril, gabapentin, oxycodone, metoprolol, aspirin, and simvastatin. He appears uncomfortable. His temperature is 37.3°C (99.1°F), pulse is 93/min, and blood pressure is 118/76 mm Hg. Examination shows a distended and tympanitic abdomen; bowel sounds are reduced. There is mild tenderness to palpation in the lower abdomen with no guarding or rebound. Rectal examination shows an empty rectum. Laboratory studies show:
Hemoglobin: 13.1 g/dL
Na+: 134 mEq/L
K+: 2.7 mEq/L
Cl-: 98 mEq/L
Urea nitrogen: 32 mg/dL
Creatinine: 1 mg/dL
An x-ray of the abdomen shows a dilated cecum and right colon and preservation of the haustrae. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast shows a cecal diameter of 11 cm. The patient is kept NPO and intravenous fluids with electrolytes are administered. A nasogastric tube and rectal tube are inserted. Thirty-six hours later, he still has abdominal pain. Examination shows a distended and tympanitic abdomen. Serum concentrations of electrolytes are within the reference range. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management?
Eight hours after undergoing an open right hemicolectomy and a colostomy for colon cancer, a 52-year-old man has wet and bloody surgical dressings. He has had episodes of blood in his stools during the past 6 months, which led to the detection of colon cancer. He has hypertension and ischemic heart disease. His younger brother died of a bleeding disorder at the age of 16. The patient has smoked one pack of cigarettes daily for 36 years and drinks three to four beers daily. Prior to admission, his medications included aspirin, metoprolol, enalapril, and simvastatin. Aspirin was stopped 7 days prior to the scheduled surgery. He appears uncomfortable. His temperature is 36°C (96.8°F), pulse is 98/min, respirations are 14/min, and blood pressure is 118/72 mm Hg. Examination shows a soft abdomen with a 14-cm midline incision that has severe oozing of blood from its margins. The colostomy bag has some blood collected within. The lungs are clear to auscultation. Cardiac examination shows an S4. Laboratory studies show:
Hemoglobin: 12.3 g/dL
Leukocyte count: 11,200/mm3
Platelet count: 210,000/mm3
Bleeding time: 4 minutes
Prothrombin time: 15 seconds (INR=1.1)
Activated partial thromboplastin time: 36 seconds
Urea nitrogen: 30 mg/dL
Glucose: 96 mg/dL
Creatinine: 1.1 mg/dL
AST: 48 U/L
ALT: 34 U/L
γ-Glutamyltransferase: 70 U/L (N= 5–50 U/L)
Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's bleeding?
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