Test Your Knowledge: Pediatrics

Take the pulse of your progress. Try answering these sample Pediatrics Shelf stems and see how well you do.

Answer all 4 questions correctly and you'll receive a free access code to AMBOSS

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A 4-year-old boy is brought to the physician because of a generalized rash for 3 days. During this period, he has had severe itching and was not able to sleep well. He has also had fever, headache, and some muscle pain. Five days ago, he had a runny nose which subsided with over-the-counter medications. He returned from a camping trip 1 week ago. He attends a daycare center. The patient is at the 55th percentile for height and at the 50th percentile for weight. His temperature is 38.2°C (100.7°F), pulse is 97/min, and blood pressure is 96/60 mm Hg. Examination of the skin shows several macules, papules, and crusted lesions over his face, trunk, and extremities. There are a few fluid-filled vesicles over his abdomen and back. There is no cervical lymphadenopathy. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 4-week-old newborn is brought to the physician for a well-child examination. He was born at 40 weeks' gestation and weighed 3300 g (7 lb 4 oz). He now weighs 4300 g (9 lbs 1 oz). There is no family history of serious illness. He is at the 50th percentile for height and 50th percentile for weight. Vital signs are within normal limits. Examination shows a grade 3/6 harsh holosystolic murmur at the left lower sternal border and a soft mid-diastolic murmur over the cardiac apex. The lungs are clear to auscultation. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this patient's physical findings?
A 4-year-old girl is brought to the physician because of pallor and rash for 2 days. She had a 4-day history of diarrhea and vomiting that subsided two days ago. One month ago, she had a 3-day episode of high fever, followed by a rash with bright red discoloration over her cheeks for two days before subsiding without treatment. Her vaccinations are up-to-date. She appears pale and irritable. Her vital signs are within normal limits. Examination shows petechiae on her trunk and extremities. Abdominal examination shows diffuse abdominal tenderness with hyperactive bowel sounds. The remainder of the exam shows no abnormalities. Laboratory studies show: A 4-year-old girl is brought to the physician because of pallor and rash for 2 days. She had a 4-day history of diarrhea and vomiting that subsided two days ago. One month ago, she had a 3-day episode of high fever, followed by a rash with bright red discoloration over her cheeks for two days before subsiding without treatment. Her vaccinations are up-to-date. She appears pale and irritable. Her vital signs are within normal limits. Examination shows petechiae on her trunk and extremities. Abdominal examination shows diffuse abdominal tenderness with hyperactive bowel sounds. The remainder of the exam shows no abnormalities. Laboratory studies show: A 4-year-old girl is brought to the physician because of pallor and rash for 2 days. She had a 4-day history of diarrhea and vomiting that subsided two days ago. One month ago, she had a 3-day episode of high fever, followed by a rash with bright red discoloration over her cheeks for two days before subsiding without treatment. Her vaccinations are up-to-date. She appears pale and irritable. Her vital signs are within normal limits. Examination shows petechiae on her trunk and extremities. Abdominal examination shows diffuse abdominal tenderness with hyperactive bowel sounds. The remainder of the exam shows no abnormalities. Laboratory studies show: Hemoglobin 8 g/dL Mean corpuscular volume 82 fL Leukocyte count 17,000/mm3 Platelet count 49,000/mm3 Prothrombin time 12 seconds Partial thromboplastin time 34 seconds Serum Urea nitrogen 42 mg/dL Creatinine 1.4 mg/dL Bilirubin Total 3 mg/dL Indirect 2.8 mg/dL Lactate dehydrogenase 300 U/L Urine Blood 2+ Protein 2+ A peripheral blood smear shows schistocytes. Which of the following is the most likely underlying cause of these findings?
A previously healthy 10-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department for the evaluation of one episode of vomiting and severe headache since this morning. His mother says he also had difficulty getting dressed on his own. He has not had any trauma. The patient appears nervous. His temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), pulse is 100/min, and blood pressure is 185/125 mm Hg. He is confused and oriented only to person. Ophthalmic examination shows bilateral optic disc swelling. There is an abdominal bruit that is best heard at the right costovertebral angle. A complete blood count is within normal limits. Which of the following is most likely to confirm the diagnosis?

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