Test Your Knowledge: Medicine

Take the pulse of your progress. Try answering these sample Medicine Shelf stems and see how well you do.

Answer all 5 questions correctly and you'll receive a free access code to AMBOSS

**Winners will receive their codes on August 20th via email.**

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A previously healthy 17-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department by his mother for further evaluation after elective removal of his wisdom teeth. During the procedure, the patient had persistent bleeding from the teeth's surrounding gums. Multiple gauze packs were applied with minimal effect. The mother says her brother had similar problems when his wisdom teeth were removed, and that he also has a history of easy bruising and joint swelling. The patient takes no medications. His temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), pulse is 90/min, and blood pressure is 108/74 mm Hg. Laboratory studies show: Hematocrit 35% Leukocyte count 8,500/mm3 Platelet count 160,000/mm3 Prothrombin time 15 sec Partial thromboplastin time 60 sec Bleeding time 6 min Fibrin split products negative Serum __ Urea nitrogen 20 mg/dL __ Creatinine 1.0 mg/dL __Bilirubin ____Total 1.0 mg/dL ____Direct 0.5 mg/dL __Lactate dehydrogenase 90 U/L Peripheral blood smear shows normal-sized platelets. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A previously healthy 60-year-old man comes to his physician because of progressively worsening shortness of breath for the past 2 months. He does not experience shortness of breath at rest. He also occasionally has a dry cough. He has not had fever, chills, or night sweats. He has smoked a pack of cigarettes daily for the past 40 years. He drinks a beer daily and occasionally more on weekends. He does not use illicit drugs. He is 183 cm (6 ft 0 in) tall and weighs 66 kg (145 lbs); BMI is 19.7 kg/m2. His temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), pulse is 94/min, respirations are 21/min, and blood pressure is 136/88 mm Hg. Lung auscultation reveals a prolonged expiratory phase and end-expiratory wheezing. Spirometry shows an FEV1:FVC ratio of 62%, an FEV1 of 60% of predicted, and a total lung capacity of 125% of predicted. The diffusion capacity of the lung (DLCO) is decreased. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 50-year-old man comes to the physician for the evaluation of recurrent episodes of chest pain, difficulty breathing, and rapid heart beating over the past two months. During this period, he has had a 4-kg (8.8-lb) weight loss, malaise, pain in both knees, and diffuse muscle pain. Five years ago, he was diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection and was started on tenofovir. His temperature is 38°C (100.4°F), pulse is 110/min, and blood pressure is 150/90 mm Hg. Cardiopulmonary examination shows no abnormalities except for tachycardia. There are several ulcerations around the ankle and calves bilaterally. Laboratory studies show: Hemoglobin 11 g/dL Leukocyte count 14,000/mm3 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 80 mm/h Serum __Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies negative __Hepatitis B surface antigen positive Urine __Protein +2 __RBC 6-7/hpf Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 35-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus comes to the emergency department for evaluation of a 1-month history of fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, and a 3.6-kg (8-lb) weight loss. She has also had a cough for the last 2 months. She reports recent loss of pubic hair. The patient immigrated from the Philippines 7 weeks ago. Her mother has systemic lupus erythematosus. She has never smoked and does not drink alcohol. Her only medication is insulin, but she sometimes misses doses. She is 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall and weighs 49 kg (108 lb); BMI is 18 kg/m². She appears lethargic. her temperature is 38.9°C (102°F), pulse is 58/min, and blood pressure is 90/60 mm Hg. Examination shows decreased sensation to touch and vibration over both feet. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Serum studies show: Na+ 122 mEq/L Cl- 100 mEq/L K+ 5.8 mEq/L Glucose 172 mg/dL Albumin 2.8 g/dL Cortisol 2.5 μg/dL ACTH 531.2 pg/mL(N=5–27 pg/mL) CT scan of the abdomen with contrast shows bilateral adrenal enlargement. Which of the following is the most likely underlying mechanism of this patient's symptoms?

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