Well-child visits

Last updated: November 15, 2023

CME information and disclosurestoggle arrow icon

To see contributor disclosures related to this article, hover over this reference: [1]

Physicians may earn CME/MOC credit by searching for an answer to a clinical question on our platform, reading content in this article that addresses that question, and completing an evaluation in which they report the question and the impact of what has been learned on clinical practice.

AMBOSS designates this Internet point-of-care activity for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

For answers to questions about AMBOSS CME, including how to redeem CME/MOC credit, see "Tips and Links" at the bottom of this article.

Summarytoggle arrow icon

The well-child visits are a vital component of pediatric and public health care, allowing for the prevention of disease through immunizations and anticipatory guidance, and early detection of existing individual health issues that require further follow-up. The schedule starts shortly after birth with the first well-child examination conducted at 3–5 days of age. The first 36 months of life is a time of rapid growth and development and children should be closely monitored with a series of regularly scheduled visits at gradually increasing intervals (from every 2 months to every 6 months). From the age of 3 years, children are assessed annually. Important components of the well-child check-up include age-specific screening recommendations, history taking and physical examination, growth and development assessment (including developmental milestones), administering immunizations, and proactive anticipatory guidance for children.

Overviewtoggle arrow icon

Schedule [2][3]

  • Neonatal visits
    • 3–5 days after birth
    • Another visit by 1 month of age (typically at 2 weeks or 1 month)
  • During the first three years: at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 months of age
  • 3 years and older: annual visits


Perform the following at every well-child visit.

A sports physical, or preparticipation examination, involves additional history and physical examination components. [4]

Overview of visits by age [3]

The following tables are an outline of the recommended content of well-child checks for healthy children with no additional risk factors identified. If additional risk factors are identified at any point (e.g., risk factors for pediatric hypertension, risk factors for lead toxicity in children), more frequent screenings (e.g., at every visit) may be required.

Screen children once between birth and 21 years of age for risk factors for hepatitis B and if risk factors are present, send HBV serology, even if the child has been vaccinated. [3]


Overview of recommendations for infants by age [3]
Recommended screening/assessments at visit
All ages
3–5 days
By 1 month
2 months
4 months
6 months
9 months
12 months

Screen children for risk factors for dental caries once at 6 months and at 9 months. If the child does not have an established dentist by the recommended age of 12 months, continue to assess for risk factors and the need for fluoride varnish through 6 years of age.[3]

Toddlers and preschool children

Overview of recommendations for toddlers and preschool children by age [3]
Recommended screening/assessments at visit
All ages
15 months
  • No additional age-specific screenings recommended
18 months
24 months
30 months
3 years
4 years

School-aged children and adolescents

Overview of recommendations for school-aged children by age [3]
Recommended screening/assessments at visit
All ages
5 years
6 years
7 years
  • No additional age-specific screenings recommended
8 years
9 years
10 years
≥ 11 years

Growthtoggle arrow icon

Approach [6][7]

  • Obtain all indicated growth parameters at each visit.
  • Plot measurements on a gender-specific growth chart.
    • < 2 years: WHO growth charts [6]
    • ≥ 2 years: CDC growth charts [8]
    • Special patient populations: Use a condition-specific growth curve, if available. [9]
  • Calculate the mid-parental height in order to [9]
    • Determine the expected adult height based on genetic potential [10]
    • Compare current growth percentiles to the expected growth percentiles
  • Track growth over time to identify pediatric growth patterns.

Pediatric growth patterns [7]

To help identify abnormal growth patterns, compare the child's growth parameter percentiles to their expected adult height (i.e., mid-parental height). [9][10]

Children < 2–3 years may cross major percentiles, but after this time should track consistently. [7]

Growth parameters [7]

Pediatric growth parameters [7][9]
Indications and method Expected trends Abnormal growth
Head circumference-for-age
  • Infants and children ≤ 3 years
  • Measure the fronto-occipital-circumference (FOC) at the widest possible spot [11]
  • Increases most rapidly during the first 3–6 months of life
  • < 2 SDs below the mean: microcephaly [9]
  • > 2 SDs above the mean: macrocephaly [12]
Linear growth [7]
  • < 2 years: supine length with measuring board
  • ≥ 2 years: standing height with stadiometer
  • Infants grow 24 cm/year (10 in/year) in the first year of life. [9]
  • Length increases ∼ 30% by 5 months and∼ 50% by one year. [13][14]
  • At 2 years of age, children have attained half of their adult height. [15]
Weight-for-age measurement
  • Weigh infants in only a diaper.
  • Older children may be weighed in clothes.
  • Newborns lose weight and regain it by 2 weeks of age. [16]
    • Breastfed infants may lose up to 10% of birthweight [17]
    • Formula-fed infants may lose up to 7% of birth weight. [18]
  • Infants gain 25–30 g/day for the first 3 months of life. [16]
  • Birth weight doubles by 4 months, triples by 1 year, and quadruples by 2 years of age. [9][19]
  • < 2 SDs below the mean: failure to thrive
  • > 2 SDs above the mean: only significant when compared with other growth parameters
Weight-for-length OR BMI
  • < 2 years: weight-for-length [20]
  • ≥ 2 years: BMI-for-age [20]
  • A percentile change may occur at 2 years of age. [21]
  • < 2 SDs below the mean: underweight
  • > 2 SDs above the mean: obesity

Screeningtoggle arrow icon

  • Routine screening allows early detection and early treatment of common healthcare problems.
  • This section includes recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF).
  • For additional recommendations (e.g., sexual health screening, substance use) in older children, see “Adolescent health care.”

Physical exam screeningtoggle arrow icon

  • See also “Pediatric growth” for recommendations on monitoring height and weight.

Pediatric physical exam screening recommendations [2][3][22]

Conditions to screen Recommended ages Method of screening Actions for abnormal findings
Pediatric hearing screening [23][24][25]
  • Refer to audiology for a full evaluation. [26]
  • If indicated, also refer to otolaryngology.
  • If hearing loss is confirmed, consider referral to genetics.
Pediatric vision screening [22][27][28][29]
  • 1–3 years of age (if instrument-based screening is available)
Scoliosis [5][34][35][36]
  • Girls: at 10 years and 12 years of age
  • Boys: once between 13–14 years of age
Hypertension [5][38]

Vision screening identifies conditions, e.g., cataracts, strabismus (in infants ≥ 4 months of age), amblyopia, that require interventions to prevent permanent vision loss. During a fundoscopic evaluation, the absence of a red reflex and/or the presence of leukocoria requires urgent ophthalmology referral and further evaluation. [39]

Hearing loss can be mistaken for other conditions. Always perform a pediatric hearing screening in children with communication disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, and behavioral problems. [40][41]

Screening studiestoggle arrow icon

Screening studies for anemia and dyslipidemia are required at set ages, regardless of risk factors. Screening studies for hepatitis B, lead toxicity, tuberculosis, and sudden cardiac death are only performed in patients with confirmed risk factors.

Recommended pediatric screening studies [2][3][22]

Conditions to screen Indications for screening Method of screening Actions for abnormal findings
Anemia screening
Hepatitis B screening

Lead toxicity screening [42]

Dyslipidemia screening [44]
Tuberculosis (TB) risk assessment [45]
Sudden cardiac death [46]
  • Refer to cardiology.

Developmental screeningtoggle arrow icon

See also “Child development and milestones.”

Pediatric developmental screening recommendations [2][3]

Conditions to screen Recommended ages Method of screening Actions for abnormal findings
Child developmental milestone screening [47]
  • At every well-child visit
  • A validated screening tool [2][47]
Autism screening [41]
  • At 18 and 24 months old
  • Refer for: [48]
    • Confirmation of the diagnosis
    • Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) therapy if autism is confirmed

Mental and social health screeningtoggle arrow icon

Pediatric mental and social health screening recommendations [2][3]

Conditions to screen Recommended ages Method of screening Actions for abnormal findings
Parental postpartum depression screening
  • At 1, 2, 4, and 6 months
Social determinants of health [49][50]
  • At every well-child visit
  • Consider using available screening surveys.
  • Provide information on local resources.
  • Refer to a social worker.
Behavioral, social, and emotional disorders screening
  • At every well-child visit
  • Consider using validated screening tools.
Anxiety [51]
  • Patients ≥ 8 years of age [51]
  • Use a validated screening tool.
Depression and suicide screening [52]
  • Patients ≥ 12 years of age: annually
  • Consider for younger children presenting with somatic symptoms. [5]
  • Use a validated depression and suicide screening tool

History and examinationtoggle arrow icon

History [22]

Physical examination [22]

Age-specific physical examination in children
Age Recommended evaluation Possible findings
Toddlers and preschool-aged children
  • Eyes: same as for infants and, if ≥ 3 years of age, cover tests [33]
  • Brachial and femoral pulses [53]
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Abdomen: Examine for masses and persistent umbilical hernia.
School-aged children and adolescents

Normal pediatric vital signs vary greatly by age.

Anticipatory guidancetoggle arrow icon

Anticipatory guidance involves proactive counseling for expected age-appropriate topics, e.g., safety, healthy lifestyles, nutrition, and dental care. See also “Anticipatory guidance for pediatric development.”

Illness management

Child safety [22][57][58]

  • Safe sleeping: Provide counseling on sudden infant death syndrome (see also “Prevention of SIDS”). [59]
  • Secondhand smoke: Advise caregivers on the risks of secondhand smoke and offer assistance with smoking cessation.
  • Child passenger safety: Children ≤ 13 years of age should ride in the backseat in a car safety seat that is approved for their age, weight, and height. ; [2][60][61][62]
    • Laws regarding minimum safety requirements for car safety seats vary between states.
    • The AAP recommends using car safety seats in the following order; advance to the next seat once the child reaches seat limits:
      • Rear-facing with harness: starting at birth until at least 2 years of age
      • Forward-facing with harness (convertible or dedicated forward seat)
      • Booster seat
    • Lap and shoulder seat belts can be used once they fit correctly.
  • Supervision
    • Supervision must be provided by a responsible adult who is awake and not under the influence of alcohol or other substances. [63]
    • 3–5 years: Continuous supervision is necessary. [64]
    • 6–8 years: Supervision is necessary near bodies of water or during risky activities (e.g., climbing). [65]
  • Abuse prevention: Teach verbal children (e.g., ≥ 3 years of age) how to recognize, respond to, and report inappropriate interactions.
  • Street and recreational safety
    • Instruct children to wear protective gear when engaging in activities with an increased risk of injury (e.g., cycling, skateboarding).
    • Teach children road safety.
  • Water safety: Encourage multiple preventive strategies.
    • Do not leave children unattended near bodies of water.
    • Consider survival swim lessons at an early age.
    • A self-locking fence should be installed around pools.
  • Childproofing the house
    • Potentially harmful household products, medications, and tools should be kept out of reach.
    • Set water heaters to 120°F (49°C) maximum temperature.
    • Firearms should be locked out of reach of children (unloaded with ammunition stored separately).
    • Anchoring furniture to walls can prevent accidental crush injuries.
  • Fire safety: Install smoke alarms and formulate a family escape plan.

Lifestyle [22][66]

  • Pacifier use [59][67]
    • Consider delaying pacifier use until breastfeeding has been well-established.
    • To assist in prevention of SIDS, encourage pacifier use during sleep in infants 1–6 months of age.
    • Limit pacifiers after 6 months of age to reduce the risk of otitis media.
    • Discontinue pacifiers at 2 to 4 years of age to prevent adverse dental effects (e.g., dental malocclusion).
  • Behavior and discipline
    • Discuss age-appropriate behaviors to manage parent expectations.
    • Encourage consistency, positive reinforcement, and age-appropriate discipline.
    • For persistent behavioral problems (e.g., temper tantrums, aggression), recommend evidence-based parenting programs.
  • Toilet training [68]
    • Initiation: At 2.5–3 years of age, when children are developmentally mature enough to begin toilet training. [69]
    • Use positive reinforcement.
    • Completion: typically by 4 years of age
  • Screen time [22][64][66]
    • Children aged < 18 months: Avoid screen time, with the exception of video calls.
    • Children aged 18–24 months: Limit screen time solely to educational content.
    • Children aged 2–5 years: Restrict sedentary screen time to ≤ 1 hour/day.
    • For older children:
      • Encourage use of an agreed plan for caregiver supervision, limits on screen time, and scheduled screen-free time.
      • Avoid screen time within 1 hour of bedtime and keep devices out of children's bedrooms.
  • Sleep: See also “Counseling on sleep hygiene.” [70]
    • 3–5 years: A total of 10–13 hours of sleep is recommended (including naps).
    • 6–12 years: Children should get 9–12 hours of sleep; daytime naps should not be forced.
  • Physical exercise: Ensure at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity.
  • Personal hygiene: Establish good hygiene habits, including hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, regular bathing; in adolescents, this should also include the use of deodorant.
  • Counseling on sexual activity, smoking, alcohol, and drug use: See “Adolescent health care.”

Do not attach pacifiers to sleeping infants or to items that present a suffocation risk (e.g., stuffed animals). [59]

Nutrition [22][71][72]

A healthy diet is essential for normal growth and development and helps prevent a variety of metabolic and other conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • Infant feeding: See also “Infant nutrition.”
    • Encourage exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. [22]
    • Exclusively breastfed infants require supplementation.
      • Vitamin D until infants are able to meet daily requirements from other food sources
      • Iron for infants ≥ 4 months until they are able to consume the recommended servings of iron-containing foods [73]
    • Introduce solid foods between 4–6 months of age.
    • Breastmilk and/or formula should continue to be given until 12 months of age.
  • Older children
    • Introduce whole milk (16–24 oz/day) at 12 months of age. [71][74]
    • Once eating solid foods, a healthy diet consists of: [13]
      • Three meals and two snacks per day
      • Caloric intake appropriate for the child's age and level of activity
      • Fruits, vegetables, legumes, beans, grains (preferably whole grain), protein foods, and dairy
      • Limited saturated fats, salt, and sugar

For children on specialized diets (e.g., for medical indications, vegetarians, vegans), consider referral to a dietitian to ensure proper dietary intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. [75]

Picky eating [76]

Encourage caregivers to offer a variety of foods without pressuring children to eat.

Dental care and caries prevention [77][78]

  • General care
    • Avoid juices in infants and limit to 4–6 oz (120–180 mL) per day for children ≥ 1 year of age [78][79]
    • Introduce a cup at 6 months of age; discourage bottles past 1 year old.
    • Before tooth eruption, wipe gums with a clean cloth after meals.
    • After tooth eruption
      • Brush teeth twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste.
      • Floss daily between teeth that touch.
    • Encourage dental visits every 6 months beginning with tooth eruption or at 12 months, whichever is first.
  • Additional fluoride [77]
    • After tooth eruption: Consider applying fluoride varnish every 3–6 months. [77]
    • Consider fluoride supplementation in those who drink fluoride-deficient water. [77][80][81]

Oral health concerns

  • Teething: the physiological process by which an infant's deciduous teeth emerge through the gums
    • Usually begins with the lower central incisors between 6 and 10 months of age and ends with the molars at 2–3 years of age [82]
    • Manifestations fluctuate with the eruption of teeth and include drooling, irritability, disrupted sleep, and/or swelling/inflammation of the gums.
    • Providing infants with a chilled teething ring to chew on safely or applying pressure to the baby's gum using clean fingers or wet gauze can reduce discomfort.
    • Systemic analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen, ibuprofen) are reserved for teething pain not effectively managed with conservative interventions.
    • Advise parents against using topical numbing treatments due to the risk of adverse effects (e.g., methemoglobinemia). [83]
  • Dental malocclusion: Discourage nonnutritive sucking habits, including thumb sucking and pacifier use, beyond 3 years of age. [84]

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. WHO Growth Standards Are Recommended for Use in the U.S. for Infants and Children 0 to 2 Years of Age. Updated: September 9, 2010. Accessed: January 24, 2023.
  2. Blaney SM, Giardino AP, Orange JS, et al. Rudolph's Pediatrics, 23rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Education / Medical ; 2018
  3. CDC Growth Charts for the United States: Methods and Development. Updated: May 1, 2002. Accessed: December 14, 2022.
  4. Kliegman RM, Geme JS. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set. Elsevier ; 2019: p. 3623-3633
  5. Barstow C, Rerucha C. Evaluation of short and tall stature in children. Am Fam Physician. 2015; 92 (1): p.43-50.
  6. Measuring head circumference. Updated: September 8, 2016. Accessed: January 26, 2023.
  7. Williams CA, Dagli A, Battaglia A. Genetic disorders associated with macrocephaly. Am J Med Genet A. 2008; 146A (15): p.2023-2037.doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32434 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. AAP Bright Futures. Bright Futures Nutrition. American Academy of Pediatrics ; 2011
  9. Moini J, Oyindamola A, Ferdowsi K, Moini M. Health Care Today in the United States. Elsevier ; 2022
  10. Predicting a Child’s Adult Height. Updated: January 27, 2016. Accessed: February 7, 2023.
  11. McInerny TK, Foy JM, Adam HM. American Academy of Pediatrics Textbook of Pediatric Care. American Academy of Pediatrics ; 2016
  12. DiTomasso D, Cloud M. Systematic Review of Expected Weight Changes After Birth for Full-Term, Breastfed Newborns. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2019; 48 (6): p.593-603.doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2019.09.004 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  13. Miller JR, Flaherman VJ, Schaefer EW, et al. Early Weight Loss Nomograms for Formula Fed Newborns. Hosp Pediatr. 2015; 5 (5): p.263-268.doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2014-0143 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  14. Davis PJ, Cladis FP. Smith's Anesthesia for Infants and Children E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences ; 2021
  15. Grossman DC, Bibbins-Domingo K, et al. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2017; 317 (23): p.2417.doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6803 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Growth Chart Training : Using the WHO Growth Charts Case Example 4: Transitioning from the WHO Weight-for-Length Chart to the CDC BMI-for-Age Chart at Age 2 Years. Updated: January 13, 2022. Accessed: February 7, 2023.
  17. $Contributor Disclosures - Well-child visits. All of the relevant financial relationships listed for the following individuals have been mitigated: Jan Schlebes (medical editor, is a shareholder in Fresenius SE & Co KGaA). None of the other individuals in control of the content for this article reported relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. For details, please review our full conflict of interest (COI) policy.
  18. Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children and Adolescents, 4th Edition. American Association of Pediatrics ; 2017
  19. Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care. Updated: July 1, 2022. Accessed: September 29, 2022.
  20. Turner K. Well-Child Visits for Infants and Young Children. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 98 (6): p.347-353.
  21. The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. Year 2019 Position Statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs. Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention. 2019; 4 (2): p.1-44.
  22. Yoeli JK, Nicklas D. Hearing Screening in Pediatric Primary Care. Pediatr Rev. 2021; 42 (5): p.275-277.doi: 10.1542/pir.2020-000901 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  23. American Academy of Audiology Childhood Hearing Screening Guidelines. Updated: September 1, 2011. Accessed: November 18, 2022.
  24. Hearing loss in children. Screening and diagnosis of hearing loss.,than%203%20months%20of%20age.. Updated: June 18, 2022. Accessed: November 18, 2022.
  25. American academy of pediatrics section on ophthalmology, American association for pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, American academy of ophthalmology, American association of certified orthoptists. Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children. Pediatrics. 2008; 122 (6): p.1401-1404.doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2624 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Simon GR, Boudreau ADA, et al. Visual System Assessment in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016; 137 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3596 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years. JAMA. 2017; 318 (9): p.836.doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.11260 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  28. American Academy of Pediatrics. Instrument-Based Vision Screening in Children. Pediatrics. 2017; 139 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3444 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  29. Donahue SP, Baker CN, Simon GR, et al. Procedures for the Evaluation of the Visual System by Pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016; 137 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3597 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  30. Vision Screening Recommendations. Updated: January 1, 2022. Accessed: November 9, 2022.
  31. Loh AR, Chiang MF. Pediatric Vision Screening. Pediatr Rev. 2018; 39 (5): p.225-234.doi: 10.1542/pir.2016-0191 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  32. Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Screening for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. JAMA. 2018; 319 (2): p.165.doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.19342 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  33. Am Fam Physician. Screening for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Recommendation Statement. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 97 (10).
  34. Riley M, Morrison L, McEvoy A. Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Screening, and Immunizations. Am Fam Physician. 2019; 100 (4): p.213-218.
  35. Hresko MT, Talwalkar V, Schwend R. Early Detection of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescents. J Bone Joint Surg. 2016; 98 (16): p.e67.doi: 10.2106/jbjs.16.00224 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  36. Jones JY, Saigal G, Palasis S, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Scoliosis-Child. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019; 16 (5): p.S244-S251.doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.018 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  37. Flynn et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017; 140 (3).doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1904 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  38. Vision Screening for Infants and Children - 2022. Joint Policy Statement. Updated: October 1, 2022. Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  39. Joint Comittee on Infant Hearing. Year 2007 Position Statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs. Pediatrics. 2007; 120 (4): p.898-921.doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2333 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  40. Hyman SL, Levy SE, Myers SM, et al. Identification, Evaluation, and Management of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Pediatrics. 2020; 145 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-3447 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  41. Gitterman BA, Flanagan PJ, et al. Poverty and Child Health in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016; 137 (4).doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0339 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  42. Sokol R, Austin A, Chandler C, et al. Screening Children for Social Determinants of Health: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2019; 144 (4).doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-1622 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  43. Mangione CM, Barry MJ, et al. Screening for Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2022; 328 (14): p.1438.doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.16936 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  44. Mangione CM, Barry MJ, et al. Screening for Depression and Suicide Risk in Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2022.doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.16946 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  45. Lanphear BP, Lowry JA, et al. Prevention of Childhood Lead Toxicity. Pediatrics. 2016; 138 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1493 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  46. Warniment C, Tsang VK, Galazka VS. Lead poisoning in children. Am Fam Physician. 2010; 81 (6): p.751-757.
  47. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents: Summary Report. Pediatrics. 2011; 128 (Supplement): p.S213-S256.doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2107c . | Open in Read by QxMD
  48. Nolt D, Starke JR. Tuberculosis Infection in Children and Adolescents: Testing and Treatment. Pediatrics. 2021; 148 (6).doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-054663 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  49. Erickson CC, Salerno JC, Berger S, et al. Sudden Death in the Young: Information for the Primary Care Provider. Pediatrics. 2021; 148 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-052044 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  50. Lipkin PH, Macias MM, Norwood KW, et al. Promoting Optimal Development: Identifying Infants and Young Children With Developmental Disorders Through Developmental Surveillance and Screening. Pediatrics. 2020; 145 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-3449 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  51. Johnson CP, Myers SM. Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics. 2007; 120 (5): p.1183-1215.doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2361 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  52. MacDonald J, Schaefer M, Stumph J. The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2021; 103 (9): p.539-546.
  53. Safety & Prevention. Updated: January 1, 2022. Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  54. Childproofing Your Home- 12 Safety Devices To Protect Your Children. . Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  55. Moon RY, Carlin RF, Hand I, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and the Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Evidence Base for 2022 Updated Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment to Reduce the Risk of Sleep-Related Infant Deaths. Pediatrics. 2022; 150 (1).doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-057991 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  56. Child Passenger Safety: Get the Facts. Updated: October 30, 2020. Accessed: September 13, 2021.
  57. Durbin DR, Hoffman BD, Agran PF, et al. Child Passenger Safety. Pediatrics. 2018; 142 (5).doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-2460 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  58. Car Seats: Information for Families. Updated: December 22, 2021. Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  59. Freisthler B, Johnson-Motoyama M, Kepple NJ. Inadequate child supervision: The role of alcohol outlet density, parent drinking behaviors, and social support. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2014; 43: p.75-84.doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.05.002 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  60. Preschoolers (3-5 years of age). . Accessed: September 13, 2021.
  61. Middle Childhood (6-8 years of age). Updated: February 22, 2021. Accessed: September 13, 2021.
  62. Locke A, Stoesser K, Pippitt K. Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part II. Counseling Recommendations. Am Fam Physician. 2019; 100 (4): p.219-226.
  63. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician. 2009; 79 (8): p.681-5.
  64. The Right Age to Potty Train. Updated: May 24, 2022. Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  65. Cognitive and Verbal Skills Needed for Toilet Training. Updated: November 2, 2009. Accessed: November 29, 2022.
  66. How Much Sleep Do I Need?. . Accessed: September 13, 2021.
  67. Riley LK, Rupert J, Boucher O. Nutrition in Toddlers. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 98 (4): p.227-233.
  68. Marcdante K, Kliegman RM. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . Elsevier ; 2015
  69. Baker RD, Greer FR. Diagnosis and Prevention of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Young Children (0–3 Years of Age). Pediatrics. 2010; 126 (5): p.1040-1050.doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2576 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  70. Am Fam Physician. Giving Your Toddler the Best Nutrition. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 98 (4): p.Online.
  71. Nierengarten MB. Special diets and supplements: Do’s and don’ts for children. Contemporary PEDS Journal. 2020; 37 (1): p.9-13.
  72. Ong C, Phuah K, Salazar E, How C. Managing the ‘picky eater’ dilemma. Singapore Med J. 2014; 55 (4).doi: 10.11622/smedj.2014049 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  73. Clark MB, et al. Fluoride Use in Caries Prevention in the Primary Care Setting. Pediatrics. 2020; 146 (6).doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-034637 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  74. Segura A, Boulter S, et al. Maintaining and Improving the Oral Health of Young Children. Pediatrics. 2014; 134 (6): p.1224-1229.doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2984 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  75. Heyman MB, Abrams SA, Heitlinger LA, et al. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations. Pediatrics. 2017; 139 (6).doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0967 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  76. Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated: August 17, 2001. Accessed: November 17, 2022.
  77. Davidson KW, Barry MJ, et al. Screening and Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries in Children Younger Than 5 Years. JAMA. 2021; 326 (21): p.2172.doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.20007 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  78. Ntani G, Day PF, Baird J, et al. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at 1 and 2 years of age. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2015; 6 (4): p.299-307.doi: 10.1017/s2040174415001130 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  79. Vohra R, Huntington S, Koike J, Le K, Geller R. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System. West J Emerg Med. 2017; 18 (5): p.923-927.doi: 10.5811/westjem.2017.6.33665 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  80. Poyak J. Effects of pacifiers on early oral development. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. ; 17 (4): p.13-6.
  81. Lannering K, Bartos M, Mellander M. Late Diagnosis of Coarctation Despite Prenatal Ultrasound and Postnatal Pulse Oximetry. Pediatrics. 2015; 136 (2): p.e406-e412.doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1155 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  82. Maaks DLG, Starr NB, Brady MA, Gaylord NM, Driessnack M, Duderstadt K. Burns' Pediatric Primary Care E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences ; 2019
  83. Kolon TF, Herndon CDA, Baker LA, et al. Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism: AUA Guideline. J Urol. 2014; 192 (2): p.337-345.doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.05.005 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  84. Zens T, Nichol PF, Cartmill R, Kohler JE. Management of asymptomatic pediatric umbilical hernias: a systematic review. J Pediatr Surg. 2017; 52 (11): p.1723-1731.doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.07.016 . | Open in Read by QxMD

Icon of a lock3 free articles remaining

You have 3 free member-only articles left this month. Sign up and get unlimited access.
 Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer