Skull base syndromes

Last updated: August 11, 2021

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Skull base syndromes are caused by malignancies or inflammatory conditions that affect the base of the skull and the cranial nerves exiting the skull. The location of the pathology can often be determined by characteristic features produced by nerve damage and other localizing space-occupying effects (e.g., pain, proptosis). Syndromes primarily involving the cranial nerves are discussed in a separate article (see cranial nerve disorders).

Superior orbital fissure syndrometoggle arrow icon

Foster-Kennedy syndrometoggle arrow icon

Orbital apex syndrometoggle arrow icon


Cavernous sinus syndrometoggle arrow icon

Cerebellopontine angle syndrometoggle arrow icon


Gradenigo's syndrometoggle arrow icon

Garcin syndrometoggle arrow icon

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Yeh S, Foroozan R. Orbital apex syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2004; 15 (6): p.490-498.
  2. Kauh CY, Nelson CC. Diagnosis and Management of Orbital Mucormycosis. EyeNet Magazine. 2014.
  3. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. Superior orbital fissure syndrome: a case report. Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. 2012; 5 (2): p.115-120.doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1313363 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Mcavoy CE, Lacey B, Page AB. Traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome. Eye . 2004; 18 (8): p.844-845.doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701320 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Maurer J, Ecke U, Schmidt CL, Stoeter P, Mann W. [Vascular origin of cerebellopontine angle syndrome].. HNO. 2000; 48 (2): p.142-6.

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