Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Last updated: November 7, 2023

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic condition characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy that is not caused by other cardiac or causative systemic diseases. Patients can be asymptomatic or have chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness, or syncope. Sudden cardiac death may occur. The diagnosis can be established with a resting ECG and echocardiography. Management for all patients involves lifestyle changes and possibly AICD placement, and for symptomatic patients, medical or surgical therapy is indicated. The goals of therapy are to decrease the heart rate to allow for improved left ventricular filling and to reduce LV outflow tract obstruction.

Definitiontoggle arrow icon

Epidemiologytoggle arrow icon

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Pathophysiologytoggle arrow icon

HCM is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricle; ; most commonly occurs with asymmetrical septal involvement, which leads to diastolic dysfunction (impaired left ventricular relaxation and filling) → reduced systolic output volume → reduced peripheral and myocardial perfusion.; cardiac arrhythmia and/or heart failure and increased risk of sudden cardiac death [3]

Nonobstructive and obstructive HCM [4]

HOCM [3][5]

Clinical featurestoggle arrow icon

HOCM is an important cause of sudden cardiac death in young patients!

Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon

Echocardiography is the best initial and confirmatory test. Other investigations (e.g., ECG, CXR, cardiac MRI, exercise testing, and screening for coronary artery disease or genetic diseases) can be done on a case-by-case basis.

Diagnostic criteria [5][7]

Both of following are required to make the diagnosis:

  1. Left ventricular nondilated hypertrophy (usually ≥ 15 mm in adults)
  2. Absence of other cardiac or systemic diseases that could explain hypertrophy (e.g., long-standing hypertension or aortic stenosis)

Transthoracic echocardiography with Doppler [5]

The following findings are more specific to obstructive HCM: asymmetrical septal thickening, dynamic LVOT obstruction by the mitral valve during systole, and LVOT pressure gradient ≥ 30 mm Hg.

ECG findings in HCM [11]

A normal ECG should prompt further evaluation, as it is only seen in 5–10% of cases. [11]

Chest x-ray

Exercise testing [5]

Provocation tests (e.g., exercise testing) are obligatory if no obstruction is discernible at rest.

Cardiac MRI (cMRI)

Additional studies

Treatmenttoggle arrow icon

General approach

  • All patients
  • Asymptomatic patients: No pharmacological or invasive treatment is needed. [5]
  • Symptomatic patients

All patients [5][7]

Lifestyle changes

  • Avoidance of dehydration
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight
  • Avoidance of excessive alcohol intake
  • Avoidance of strenuous exercise and situations that will likely cause vasodilation (e.g., environmental factors such as high temperatures)

Automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD)

An AICD is considered for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients who are at high risk.

Symptomatic patients [5][7]

The goal of treatment is to alleviate the symptoms of HCM by slowing the heart rate.

Recommended pharmacotherapy [13][14]

These medications should be used with caution due to their potential for provoking dysrhythmias (e.g, AV block, QT prolongation) and worsening LVOT obstruction in specific situations (e.g., hypovolemia). Cardiology consultation is advised.

Pharmacotherapy to avoid

The following are relative contraindications and may not apply to all patients, e.g., those with acute complications such as heart failure or atrial fibrillation.

Positive inotropic and afterload-reducing or preload-reducing drugs (e.g., digoxin, nitrates, dihydropyridine CCBs, ACEIs) are contraindicated in patients with obstructive HCM!

Invasive therapy

These are generally indicated for symptoms that are refractory to medical therapy.

Complicationstoggle arrow icon

The following complications can be very challenging to manage and required a specialized approach. Cardiology consultation is advised.

We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

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Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Christian Prinz, Dr. med., Martin Farr, Dr. rer. nat., Detlef Hering, Dr. med., Dieter Horstkotte, Prof. Dr. med, and Lothar Faber, Prof. Dr. med.. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Deutsches Ärzteblatt. 2011.
  2. Maron MS. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Gene mutations and clinical genetic testing. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: December 14, 2016. Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  3. Nishimura RA, Seggewiss H, Schaff HV. Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy. Circ Res. 2017; 121 (7): p.771-783.doi: 10.1161/circresaha.116.309348 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Marian AJ, Braunwald E. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation Research. 2017.
  5. Gersh BJ, Maron BJ, Bonow RO et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines . J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011; 142 (6): p.e153-203.doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.10.020 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Maron MS. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and evaluation. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: December 15, 2016. Accessed: February 13, 2017.
  7. Elliott PM, Anastasakis A, Borger MA et al. 2014 ESC Guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) . Eur Heart J. 2014; 35 (39): p.2733-2779.doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu284 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Martin S. Maron, MD; Ethan J. Rowin, MD; Barry J. Maron, MD. How to Image Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2017.
  9. Lee PT, Dweck MR, Prasher S, et al. Left Ventricular Wall Thickness and the Presence of Asymmetric Hypertrophy in Healthy Young Army Recruits. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2013; 6 (2): p.262-267.doi: 10.1161/circimaging.112.979294 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  10. Afonso LC, Bernal J, Bax JJ, Abraham TP. Echocardiography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol Img. 2008; 1 (6): p.787-800.doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2008.09.002 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  11. Veselka J, Anavekar NS, Charron P. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Lancet. 2017; 389 (10075): p.1253-1267.doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31321-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  12. Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: What Every Cardiologist Needs to Know. Updated: February 27, 2020. Accessed: March 22, 2020.
  13. Maron BJ. Clinical Course and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2018; 379 (7): p.655-668.doi: 10.1056/nejmra1710575 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  14. Tuohy CV, Kaul S, Song HK, Nazer B, Heitner SB. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the future of treatment. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2020; 22 (2): p.228-240.doi: 10.1002/ejhf.1715 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. Ammirati E, Contri R, Coppini R, Cecchi F, Frigerio M, Olivotto I. Pharmacological treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: current practice and novel perspectives. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2016; 18 (9): p.1106-1118.doi: 10.1002/ejhf.541 . | Open in Read by QxMD
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