Wounds are defined as a disruption of the normal structure and function of skin and underlying soft tissue that is caused by trauma or chronic mechanical stress (e.g., decubitus ulcers). Wounds can be broken down into acute or chronic, and open or closed. Wound treatment is performed according to pathology, the extent, and circumstances of the lesions. To heal, the wound needs to have a vascular supply, be free of necrotic tissue, clear of infection, and moist. General wound treatment includes surgical wound closure, open wound treatment, and plastic reconstruction of skin defects. In addition, infectious or concomitant disease prevention should be considered (e.g., antibiotic therapy, vaccines for tetanus and rabies, diabetes control). Surgical intervention is usually required with traumatic injuries, whereas chronic wounds and ulcers can often be treated conservatively. In the case of severe or nonhealing wounds, surgical intervention including debridement may be necessary. Wound complications, particularly after abdominal surgery, include hematomas and seromas, infection, wound dehiscence and evisceration, and fistulas of the GI tract.
Acute vs. chronic wounds 
- Acute wound: a disruption of the skin and/or underlying soft tissue that has a well-organized healing process with predictable tissue repair
- Chronic wound: a wound with an impaired healing process, usually involving a prolonged or excessive inflammatory phase, persistent infections, formation of drug-resistant microbial biofilms, and the inability of cells to respond to reparative stimuli. All chronic wounds begin as acute wounds.
Open vs. closed wounds 
An amputation is the surgical or traumatic separation of a body part from the rest of the body.
- Complete amputation: the body part is totally severed
- Partial amputation: some soft tissue remains connected to the affected body part and the rest of the body
- Surgical amputations: careful, controlled removal of a body part in the operating room
Traumatic amputations: Most traumatic amputations are accidental, and usually result from factory, farm, or power tool accidents. Motor vehicle accidents may also cause traumatic amputations. The tips of longer fingers tend to be injured more often because they are more exposed to harm.
Complete fingertip amputation management 
- Control bleeding by placing direct pressure on the wound and raise the injured area.
- Gently clean the amputated part with sterile saline solution.
- Cover with gauze dampened with saline.
- Place in a watertight bag.
- Place the bag in an ice bath in a sealed container.
- Head to hospital for urgent assessment.
- Reimplantation is more likely to be performed for:
- Complete fingertip amputation management 
- Wound infection: stump pain, erythema, and wound drainage, fever
- Stump hematoma
- Stump ulcer
- Etiology: most commonly develops due to friction and repetitive pressure from a prosthesis with a suboptimal fit
- Risk factors: conditions associated with poor wound healing (e.g., diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, poor circulation)
- Management of noninfected stump ulcer: pressure relief, skincare and frequent wound checks, and ensuring a proper prosthetic socket fit
Do not allow the amputated part to be in direct contact with ice, because direct contact can cause further damage.
Bite wounds 
- Common pathogens: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, , Haemophilus influenzae, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, anaerobic bacteria
- : must be considered in case of dog bites. If rabies is suspected, active and passive immunization according to vaccine recommendations should be performed.
- Stabilization with direct pressure to stem bleeding, and neurovascular assessment of areas distal to wound
- Irrigation and debridement
- Primary surgical closure if wound meets all of the following criteria :
- Clinically uninfected
- < 12 hours old (< 24 hours if on the face)
- Locations other than the hand or foot
Allow spontaneous closure (secondary intention) if:
- Cat or human bite not on the face
- Puncture wounds
- Wounds > 12 hours old (> 24 hours if on the face)
- Bites involving the hands or feet
- Indications: deep puncture wounds; , moderate to severe wounds with crush injury; , wounds in areas with venous/lymphatic compromise, wounds on the hands/face/close to a bone or joint, wounds requiring closure, bite wounds in the immunocompromised
- Use broad‑spectrum antibiotics, e.g., amoxicillin and a beta‑lactamase inhibitor () or cephalosporin of 2nd or 3rd generation
- When performing first aid, do not remove the foreign body from the wound, as this could stop the object's sealing and tamponading effect, which could result in bleeding.
- Removal in a hospital setting with staff prepared for immediate surgical intervention
- Treatment: see “Penetrating trauma”
See “” article for more information.
- Definition: : an area of unrelieved pressure resulting in ischemia, cell death, and necrotic injury of epidermis and soft tissue
- Bed confinement
- Reduced perception of pain
- Skin breakdown (maceration) due to urinary or stool retention
- Predisposing factors: diabetes mellitus, reduced skin perfusion (from peripheral artery disease, heart failure, vasoconstriction), polyneuropathy, cachexia, old age, multimorbidity, malnourishment
- Most commonly involved bacteria: S. aureus, Gram-negative rods (e.g., Proteus mirabilis; , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus
- Pressure relief of the affected or vulnerable area with position changes (every 2 hours); and an alternating pressure mattress
- Skin care: keeping skin moist, preventing breakdown, as well as keeping it clean of urine and stool
- Wound treatment (e.g., removal of necrosis, hydrocolloid dressing)
- Secondary prophylaxis: mobilization, optimized diet, control of infection
- Surgical management for severe cases
- Debridement, eventually plastic reconstruction
- Conservative management
Open wound treatment
Clean surgical wound treatment
- Age of the wound: Primary surgical wound treatment is possible up to 6–8 hours after injury. If the wound is > 8 hours old, see treatment for dirty open wounds.
- Extent of the wound: The patient should have intact circulation, sensation, and movement.
- Type of wound: clean, sharply defined wound with adjustable wound edges
- Localization: Anatomical location of the wound determines healing time (e.g., head wounds heal more quickly than extremity wounds because of increased vascularity).
- Additional treatment:
6–8 hours rule: Primary surgical wound treatment should not be used for injuries older than 6–8 hours because of the high risk of infection!
Dirty wound treatment
- Indications: The goal is to remove devitalized tissue, contamination, and residual suture material that may disrupt the body's ability to heal.
- Cleaning via pressured irrigation using warm, isotonic saline
- Debridement (removal of dead, damaged or infected tissue to improve the efficiency of wound healing) under local anesthesia to remove devitalized tissue and accumulated debris
- Ensure drainage (e.g., inlay, strip of gauze)
- Moist dressing and immobilization
- Delayed/secondary surgical wound treatment after 3–8 days
- Additional treatment:
Closed wound treatment
Closed wounds are usually caused by blunt trauma.
- Complications: : severe bleeding, large bruises, damage to neurons, fractures, damage to internal organs, and
Skin grafting 
Skin grafts may be used to close wounds, prevent fluid and electrolyte loss, and reduce bacterial burden and infection.
Full thickness skin graft (FTSG)
- Graft: epidermis and dermis (including dermal appendages), usually obtained from areas of redundant and pliable skin (e.g., groin, lateral thigh, lower abdomen, lateral chest)
- Indications: small, uncontaminated, well-vascularized wounds
- Advantages: good postoperative cosmetic outcome
- Disadvantages: high risk of necrosis, secondary injury to the donor area
Split-thickness skin graft (STSG)
- Graft: epidermis and upper part (¼–¾) of the dermis (without dermal appendages)
- Indications: many uses; resurface large wounds and mucosal deficits, line cavities, close donor sites of flaps, treat large chronic wounds
- Advantages: heals well, only superficial secondary defect in donor area, which does not have to be covered
- Disadvantages: scar formation when graft heals, skin pigmentation change, tendency to contract, more fragile
- Subtype: mesh graft
Composite graft 
- Graft: a graft containing multiple structures, such as skin and other structures like muscles, bones, or cartilage
- Indications: distal fingertip amputations, nasal reconstructions, ear reconstructions
- Advantages: heals well, usually includes pedicle containing blood supply, aesthetically pleasing
- Disadvantages: higher infection rate, increased risk that graft does not take compared to local flaps
Hematomas and seromas 
- Definition: collection of blood (hematoma) or serum (seroma)
- Pathophysiology: failure of hemostasis or coagulation
- Usually occurs several days after surgery
- Either asymptomatic or can have swelling, pain, or drainage
- Small or asymptomatic: manage expectantly
- Large or symptomatic: exploration and drainage, followed by wound packing until granulation tissue is formed, then closed by delayed primary intention or by secondary intention
- Complications: may lead to wound infections as bacteria have access to deeper layers of fascia and can multiply in the stagnant fluid
Fascial dehiscence 
- Definition: fascial disruption due to abdominal wall tension that overcomes tissue or suture strength, or knot security
- Clinical features
Treatment for early dehiscence
- Cover wound with moist dressing and perform wound exploration and debridement in the operating room (OR).
- An abdominal binder can be used to keep organs intact while en route to OR.
- Reapproximate fascial edges.
- Close with continuous, slowly absorbable suture.
- Organ evisceration: abdominal organs protrude through the outer abdomen
- If evisceration has happened, do not use binder, and take to OR immediately.
- Prevention: : good surgical technique, avoid heavy lifting for 4–6 weeks after abdominal laparotomy
- Complications: sepsis, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, malnutrition
- Spontaneous closure occurs in at least 30% of patients 
- Conservative therapy: rehydration and electrolyte repletion, antibiotics (in case of infections), nutritional support, control of fistula drainage (e.g., ostomy pouch), skin protection
- Surgical therapy: attempted 1–4 months after trial of conservative therapy if no signs of spontaneous closure are present
- Lysis of adhesions
- Resection of abnormal or diseased bowel
- Reanastamosis of healthy bowel