- Clinical science
Toe deformities are pathological deviations of one or several toes from the anatomical norm. The most common deformity is hallux valgus, a lateral deviation of the large toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint. The etiology of hallux valgus is multifactorial and includes biomechanical instability, poorly fitting shoe wear, neuromuscular diseases, and connective tissue disorders. It presents with pain and inflammation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Treatment options include special footwear and inlays, pain management and corrective surgery. This learning card also discusses hallux varus, hammer toe, and claw toe.
- Definition: A lateral deviation of the large toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint, often with concurrent rotation of the large toe. A prominent first metatarsal head, potentially with soft-tissue swelling, is also present.
- Most common forefoot deformity
- ♀ > ♂
- Etiology: multifactorial
- Clinical features
- X-ray of the feet
- Definition: medial deviation of the big toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint
- Most common: consequence of corrective surgery for hallux valgus (e.g., osteotomy)
- Rarely: congenital , traumatic, idiopathic
- Definition: proximal interphalangeal joint flexion deformity of a lesser toe with hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints
- Epidemiology: most common deformity of the lesser toes
- Claw toe