• Clinical science

Toe deformities


Toe deformities are pathological deviations of one or several toes from the anatomical norm. The most common deformity is hallux valgus, a lateral deviation of the large toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint. The etiology of hallux valgus is multifactorial and includes biomechanical instability, poorly fitting shoe wear, neuromuscular diseases, and connective tissue disorders. It presents with pain and inflammation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Treatment options include special footwear and inlays, pain management and corrective surgery. This learning card also discusses hallux varus, hammer toe, and claw toe.

Diagnostic considerations

  • Conventional x-ray of the foot
    • The lateral and medial sesamoid bones function as a divider of muscle tendons.
    • Both sesamoid bones form part of normal human anatomy and are radiologically detectable.

Do not confuse the protruding lateral and medial sesamoid bones with pathological structures!

Hallux valgus

Other toe deformities

last updated 12/09/2019
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