Trusted medical expertise in seconds.

Access 1,000+ clinical and preclinical articles. Find answers fast with the high-powered search feature and clinical tools.

Try free for 5 days
Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer.


Last updated: October 9, 2020

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that may be triggered by a number of factors (e.g., alcohol, stress). The etiology is unclear; however, the disease is more common in females and middle-aged individuals with fair skin. The disease presents with central facial erythema, telangiectasias, and papules/pustules. In severe cases, the nose develops a large, bulbous shape (rhinophyma). In contrast to acne, comedones are not present. Treatment options include the avoidance of triggers, topical agents (e.g., metronidazole, brimonidine) for mild disease and oral agents (e.g., metronidazole) for more severe disease.

  • Sex: > [1]
  • Age range: 30–60 years [1][2]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

The cause of rosacea is not entirely understood. It involves chronic inflammation of skin and is especially associated with triggers that increase body temperature.

  • Trigger factors
    • Hot weather, hot drinks, spicy food
    • Stress, alcohol, nicotine
    • Demodex mites


In contrast to acne, comedones are NOT present in patients with rosacea.



  1. Alinia H, Tuchayi SM, Patel NU, et al. Rosacea triggers. Dermatol Clin. 2018; 36 (2): p.123-126. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2017.11.007 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Rainer BM, Kang S, Chien AL. Rosacea: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2017; 9 (1): p.e1361574. doi: 10.1080/19381980.2017.1361574 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  3. Goldgar C, Keahey DJ, Houchins J. Treatment options for acne rosacea. Am Fam Physician. 2009; 80 (5): p.461-468.
  4. Mikkelsen CS, Holmgren HR, Kjellman P, et al. Rosacea: a clinical review. Dermatol Reports. 2016; 8 (1). doi: 10.4081/dr.2016.6387 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Oge LK, Muncie HL, Phillips-Savoy AR. Rosacea: Diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2015; 92 (3): p.187-196.
  6. Weinkle AP, Doktor V, Emer J. Update on the management of rosacea. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015; 8 : p.159–177. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S58940 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  7. Abokwidir M, Feldman SR. Rosacea Management. Skin Appendage Disord. 2016; 2 (1-2): p.26-34. doi: 10.1159/000446215 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Gether L, Overgaard LK, Egeberg A, Thyssen JP. Incidence and prevalence of rosacea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2018 . doi: 10.1111/bjd.16481 . | Open in Read by QxMD