- Clinical science
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland that may be of infectious (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis) or noninfectious origin (chronic pelvic pain syndrome, or CPPS). Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are most often caused by Escherichia coli, while in CPPS no causative organism can be identified. Patients with acute bacterial prostatitis typically present with spiking fevers, chills, perineal pain, and symptoms of bladder irritation. The presentation of chronic bacterial prostatitis and CPPS is more subtle, including symptoms of chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections and genitourinary pain. Findings on examination include a tender, boggy prostate in acute bacterial prostatitis, and mildly tender or normal prostate in chronic bacterial prostatitis and CPPS. Diagnostics aim to identify a potential causative organism via urine culture or fractional urine examination. Empirical antibiotic treatment is the primary therapeutic approach for acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, whereas treatment for CPPS is multimodal, including pharmacological treatment, psychological support, and physiotherapy. Acute bacterial prostatitis can lead to complications (e.g., acute urinary retention, prostatic abscess formation, sepsis) that may require additional treatment, such as suprapubic catheterization or ultrasound-guided abscess drainage.
- Common urologic diagnosis in men < 50 years of age 
- In men, there is an ∼ 8% lifetime risk of developing prostatitis.
- Bacterial prostatitis (2–5% of cases): most commonly men between 20 and 50 years of age
- Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (90–95% of cases): primarily men between 40 and 60 years of age
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
Acute prostatitis 
- Nonbacterial: Viral infections are rare.
Chronic prostatitis 
Other causes for acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Other genitourinary tract infections (e.g., urethritis, cystitis, epididymitis)
- Genitourinary tract interventions (e.g., indwelling catheter, transurethral surgery, prostate biopsy)
- Voiding dysfunction and bladder outlet obstruction
Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) 
|Overview of clinical features of bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome |
|Acute bacterial prostatitis||Chronic bacterial prostatitis||Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS)|
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Genitourinary tract symptoms
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- ↑ Inflammatory markers
- ↑ PSA
- Blood cultures: in case sepsis is suspected
- Fractional urine examination
- The following two tests are methods for diagnosing chronic bacterial prostatitis that are based on fractional urine examination.
- Used to determine the location of the infection by culturing various urine samples
- Difficult technique, therefore not performed often
- Procedure: 4 samples are taken and cultured
- Suggested as an acceptable alternative to four-glass test
- Easier to perform and only slightly lower sensitivity
- Procedure: 2 samples are taken and cultured
These tests should not be performed routinely and are only indicated if a complication is suspected or to exclude differential diagnoses in CPPS.
- Urethral swab and culture: to exclude urethritis caused by sexually transmitted pathogens (e.g., chlamydia)
- Uroflowmetry or cystoscopy: to exclude urethral stricture or bladder outlet obstruction
Bacterial prostatitis 
- First-line treatment: antibiotic therapy PO for 6 weeks
- In cases of acute urinary retention and persistent fever: suprapubic catheterization
- Medical therapy
- Psychological support and treatment
- Prostatic abscess
- Acute urinary retention
- Pyelonephritis and sepsis
We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.