Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD), originally known as phobic postural vertigo (PPV), is an idiopathic disorder that presents with a persistent sensation of non-rotational dizziness or unsteadiness and hypersensitivity to motion, lasting at least 3 months. It is the most common cause of chronic dizziness and it often follows an event that caused acute vertigo or dizziness, such as vestibular neuritis or panic attacks. Typically, patients recover from the initial acute disease, but the feeling of dizziness persists. Treatment consists of vestibular rehabilitation, psychotherapy and, if necessary, SSRIs.
- Most common vestibular disorder in people 30–50 years of age
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
- Idiopathic, but it often follows an event that caused acute vertigo or dizziness (e.g., vestibular neuritis, Ménière's disease, brain injury, panic attack)
- Persistent sensation of non-rotational dizziness or unsteadiness for at least 3 months
- Symptoms are present ≥ 15 of every 30 days, although most patients experience daily symptoms
- Dizziness typically worsens with motion of both the patient and his or her surroundings
- PPPD patients often suffer from anxiety and/or depressive disorders
- PPPD is a clinical diagnosis
- History of an initial event and waxing and waning dizziness, nonspinning vertigo, and unsteadiness for at least 3 months.
- Physical examination is usually unremarkable
The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.
The following measures are indicated for all patients:
- Lifestyle changes: good dietary habits
- Vestibular rehabilitation
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Drug of choice: serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
The majority of patients recover completely or improve considerably.