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Pelvic fracture

Last updated: August 2, 2021

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Pelvic fractures most often occur in patients with multiple trauma caused by impact injuries such as car accidents or falls. Patients present with pelvic pain, reduced range of motion, and hematomas. Concomittant injuries such as urethral injury are common. The pelvic stability of every patient with multiple trauma must be checked, as shifted pelvic injuries tend to lead to extensive intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal bleeding, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock or death. The treatment for stable fractures is often conservative, with short-term bed rest and subsequent pain‑adapted mobilization. Unstable pelvic ring fractures with open fractures or significant bleeding require surgery for hemorrhage control, external fixation. This is followed by definitive fixation with plates or screws after the patient becomes hemodynamically stable. Alongside other possible complications, there is a significantly increased risk of thrombosis, and prophylaxis should be administered accordingly.

  • Peak incidence: 15–28 years
  • 20% of multiple trauma patients have a pelvic injury.
  • 60% of patients with pelvic injury have multiple trauma.

References:[1][2][3]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

  • High speed car and motorcycle accidents
  • Falls, especially in the elderly

References:[4]

Tile classification of pelvic fractures

An isolated unilateral anterior fracture of the pelvic ring may exhibit fairly mild symptoms!

References:[1][3][4][5][6][7]

Pelvic injuries can lead to heavy and potentially fatal blood loss!

References:[1][8]

References:[1][8][9]

A pelvic injury always requires thrombosis prevention because of the high risk of thrombosis associated with it!

References:[6][9]

We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

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  2. Gänsslen A, Pohlemann T, Paul C, Lobenhoffer P, Tscherne H. Epidemiology of pelvic ring injuries . Injury. 1996; 27 (Suppl 1): p.S-A13-20.
  3. Asensio JA, Trunkey DD. Current Therapy of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care. Elsevier ; 2015
  4. Fiechtl J. Pelvic Trauma: Initial Evaluation and Management. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pelvic-trauma-initial-evaluation-and-management.Last updated: January 19, 2017. Accessed: April 16, 2017.
  5. Fiechtl J. Minor Pelvic Fractures in the Older Adult. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/minor-pelvic-fractures-in-the-older-adult.Last updated: August 27, 2015. Accessed: April 16, 2017.
  6. Cothren Burlew C, Moore EE. Severe Pelvic Fracture in the Adult Trauma Patient. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/severe-pelvic-fracture-in-the-adult-trauma-patient.Last updated: April 19, 2016. Accessed: April 16, 2017.
  7. Kong JP, Bultitude MF, Royce P, Gruen RL, Cato A, Corcoran NM. Lower urinary tract injuries following blunt trauma: a review of contemporary management. Rev Urol. 2011; 13 (3): p.119-130.
  8. Pelvic Ring Fractures. http://www.orthobullets.com/trauma/1030/pelvic-ring-fractures. Updated: April 16, 2017. Accessed: April 16, 2017.
  9. Coccolini F, Stahel PF, Montori G. Pelvic trauma: WSES classification and guidelines. World J Emerg Surg. 2017 . doi: 10.1186/s13017-017-0117-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD