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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Last updated: July 5, 2021

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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening neurological disorder usually associated with antipsychotics. Clinical features include fever, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability, and mental status changes. Laboratory measures often show an elevated creatine kinase and myoglobinuria as a sign of rhabdomyolysis. Management includes discontinuation of the antipsychotic drug, supportive measures, and administration of dantrolene.

FALTER: Fever, Autonomic instability, Leukocytosis, Tremor, Elevated enzymes (creatine kinase, transaminases), and Rigor are the different symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

References:[1][2]

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

References:[1][2][3]

  1. Sahoo MK, Agarwal S, Biswas H. Catatonia versus neuroleptic malignant syndrome: the diagnostic dilemma and treatment. Ind Psychiatry J. 2014; 23 (2): p.163-165. doi: 10.4103/0972-6748.151703 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Lang F, Lang S, Becker T, Jäger M. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome or catatonia? Trying to solve the catatonic dilemma. Psychopharmacology. 2015; 232 (1): p.1.
  3. Perry PJ, Wilborn CA. Serotonin syndrome vs neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a contrast of causes, diagnoses, and management.. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2012; 24 (2): p.155-162.