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Louse- and flea-borne diseases

Last updated: June 2, 2021

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Louse- and flea-borne diseases are caused by pathogens that are transmitted by lice or fleas. The most dangerous flea-borne disease is plague as well as endemic typhus.

For more information on epidemic and endemic typhus, see “Typhus.”

Trench fever (five-day fever)

Louse-borne relapsing fever

Borrelia recurentis causes a recurrent (relapsing) fever.


  1. Plague - Resources for Clinicians. Updated: September 10, 2015. Accessed: March 24, 2017.