• Clinical science

Local and regional anesthesia


Local and regional anesthesia, in contrast to systemic, general anesthesia, involves the reversible numbing of a specific region of the body to prevent any sensation of pain. Pain may be blocked on different levels of its signal transduction pathway, e.g., at the site of origin, along the nerves, or in the brain. Accordingly, local and regional anesthesia can be divided into local topical and infiltration anesthesia, regional peripheral nerve blocks (PNB), and neuraxial anesthesia (e.g., spinal and epidural). Local anesthesia can be combined with general anesthesia, allowing the doses of anesthetic and analgesic drugs to be reduced during surgery, and may eliminate the need for other measures to achieve sufficient anesthesia (depending on the timeframe of surgery, risk profile, patient's consent). In general, local anesthesia carries less risk than general anesthesia, as essential body functions (e.g., respiration) are not affected. However, specific complications (e.g., bleeding, infection) and contraindications (e.g., patient's refusal, allergies) to local anesthesia must be considered. The drugs used for anesthesia can be found in the learning card local anesthetic agents.


Local and regional anesthesia are used prior to certain medical procedures to reduce pain; see “Indications” in local anesthetic agents.

  • Types of anesthetic agents and their pharmacology: See “Local anesthetic agents.
  • Contraindications
    • Absolute contraindications: Allergies to local anesthetic drugs
    • Relative contraindications
      • Active inflammation/infection at the injection site
      • Neurological deficits in the area of distribution
  • Techniques


Local anesthesia

  • Definition: : Local anesthesia reversibly blocks nerve endings and pain conduction near the site of administration (limited area).
  • Indications: See local anesthetic agents.
  • Procedure
    • Topical anesthesia: application of gels, ointments, sprays, or patches → anesthetic agent gets absorbed through the skin or mucosa
    • Infiltration anesthesia: injection of local anesthetic directly into a painful area or one to be operated on
      • Technique:
        • Hygiene is crucial and depends on the specific intervention!
        • Sufficient infiltration of the target area (e.g., wound margins of a cut) by injecting the local anesthetic drug from all sides with as few punctures as possible (avoid vascular infiltration by aspirating before injecting!)
      • Injection site: injected locally subcutaneously and/or submucosally wherever required (e.g., wound margins of a cut)

The effect of local anesthetic drugs is very limited in inflamed tissues (e.g., abscess)! The acidic environment of inflamed tissues leads to protonation of the anesthetic drug, which in turn reduces its lipophilicity and prevents the spread of the drug to the site of action.


Peripheral nerve block


  • Local anesthetic is injected near a specific nerve or nerve bundle.


  • Surgery of the upper extremities
  • Surgery of the lower extremities
  • Surgery of the scalp, neck, and trunk
  • Block of selected peripheral nerves (e.g., digital nerve block): technique to anesthetize the digits to perform surgery on the fingers or toes.

Relative contraindication


  • Injection site: depends on the nerves that need to be blocked
  • Technique
    1. Identification of the relevant nerve guided by specific landmarks and/or:
      • Ultrasound: ultrasound-guided needle advancement towards the target nerve
      • Nerve stimulation test
    2. Two approaches to inject the local anesthetic drugs are available:
      1. Single-shot technique: A single dose of the local anesthetic drug is injected (e.g., bupivacaine).
      2. Catheter placement with the advantage of repeated/continuous administration of anesthetic drugs

Peripheral nerve blocks are preferred over general anesthesia in patients with respiratory problems and preferred over epidural/spinal anesthesia in patients who are at high risk for urinary retention or other side effects of these procedures.


Epidural anesthesia


  • Local anesthetics with or without opioids and alpha-adrenergic agonists are injected into the epidural space and act on the spinal nerve roots.




  • Injection site
    • May be performed at any vertebral level (cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine)
    • Needle inserted into the epidural space between the ligamentum flavum and dura mater
  • Approaches to inject the local anesthetic:
    1. Catheter placement, which has the advantage of repeated/continuous administration of anesthetic drugs (most commonly performed)
    2. Single-shot technique



Spinal anesthesia



Used for a variety of lower extremity, lower abdominal, pelvic, and perineal procedures (e.g., cesarean section, hip and knee replacement)



  • Injection site
  • Approach: almost always single-shot technique



All procedures

Epidural/spinal anesthesia


We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.