• Clinical science

Diarrheagenic E. coli

Summary

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped flagellated bacterium. Although it is an essential component of the bacterial gut flora, disease may be caused by direct intake of a pathogenic E. coli subtype (e.g., in contaminated food) or spreading of the intestinal bacteria to another organ (cystitis, pneumonia). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), for instance, can lead to severe colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), particularly in children and infants. In such cases, diarrhea should only be treated symptomatically, as antibiotics can lead to increased toxin secretions that exacerbate the course of disease. Supportive therapy without antibiotic therapy is also recommended for infection involving other strains of E. coli (ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC), but antibiotics may be indicated in certain cases.

General information

Do not treat with antibiotics if EHEC is suspected!

References:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)

EHEC → "H" as in "Hemolytic-uremic syndrome" is an important complication!

References:[10][10][3][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

ETEC → "T" as in “Traveler's diarrhea

References:[8][17][18][19][20][21]

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)

EPEC → "P" as in "Pediatrics" → infantile diarrhea

References:[10][2][22][23][24][25]

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC)

References:[23]