• Clinical science

Coxsackie virus infections

Summary

Coxsackie viruses are a group of RNA viruses with over 20 serotypes; depending on specific viral characteristics, these serotypes are further divided into groups A and B. Infection is associated with a wide range of symptoms, which are dependent on the exact serotype. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are commonly caused by group A coxsackie viruses, while pleurodynia and myocarditis are caused by group B coxsackie viruses. Both groups may cause viral meningitis, conjunctivitis, or pneumonia. Diagnostic procedures and treatment should be tailored to the specific disease manifestation.

Epidemiology

  • Worldwide distribution
  • Occur in all age groups
  • Highest incidence in infants and young children (< 10 years) [1]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiology

  • Pathogen: coxsackie virus
  • Route of transmission
    • Airborne droplets
    • Fecal‑oral route

Disease manifestations

Coxsackie A [2]

Coxsackie B [2]

Coxsackie A and B

Coxsackie B is the most common cause of viral myocarditis.