Anal cancer is a rare tumor. Risk factors include infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), immunodeficiency, and receptive anal intercourse. The most common clinical features are rectal bleeding (up to 45% of cases), pruritus ani, and tenderness or pain in the anal area. Anal cancer presents mainly as squamous cell carcinoma and in rare cases as adenocarcinoma or other non-epidermoid cancers. Depending on the exact localization and stage, it requires excision and/or radiochemotherapy. If the condition is treated in its early stages, the prognosis is favorable.
- Incidence: ∼ 8,000 cases diagnosed per year in the US 
- More common in HIV-positive individuals and men who have sex with men
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
- Digital rectal exam
- Invasive procedures
- Staging 
Anal canal cancer 
- Treatment of choice: radiochemotherapy
- Recurrent cancers are treated surgically.
- Anal margin cancer
We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.
- Anal cancer of the dentate line: The 5-year survival rate after radiochemotherapy is > 80%.
- Anal cancer of the anal verge: The prognosis is favorable if complete local excision is possible. The 5-year survival rate after rectal amputation is approx. 50%.