Test Your Knowledge: Broken Heart Syndrome

In celebration of Valentine's Day, here are 5 questions on cardiomyopathy (broken heart syndrome).

Give it a try! 

Name *
A 42-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 5-day history of intermittent palpitations. She has no history of syncope or chest pain. She had similar symptoms 1 year ago and following workup has been treated with daily flecainide since then. She drinks 1–2 glasses of wine on the weekends. She does not smoke. Her pulse is 71/min and her blood pressure is 134/72 mm Hg. A complete blood count shows no abnormalities. Serum creatinine, electrolytes, and TSH are within normal limits. An ECG is shown. Ablation of which of the following sites would be most appropriate for long-term management of this patient's condition?
A 27-year-old woman is brought to the physician after passing out at home. Her husband reports that she suddenly lost consciousness for approximately 30 seconds while shoveling snow in the driveway. Immediately before the episode, she felt light-headed and short of breath. Two months ago, she experienced a similar episode while running in her yard with her children. She has no history of serious illness. Her father died of sudden cardiac death at the age of 44 years. Vital signs are within normal range. Cardiac examination shows a systolic ejection murmur best heard along the left sternal border that decreases with hand grip. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment for this patient?
A 16-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department 20 minutes after collapsing while playing basketball. There is no personal or family history of serious illness. On arrival, there is no palpable pulse and no respiratory effort is seen. He is declared dead. The family agrees to an autopsy. Which of the following is most likely to be found in the patient?
A previously healthy 21-year-old man is brought to the emergency department for the evaluation of an episode of unconsciousness that suddenly happened while playing football 30 minutes ago. He was not shaking and regained consciousness after about 30 seconds. Over the past three months, the patient has had several episodes of shortness of breath while exercising, as well as sensations of a racing heart. He does not smoke or drink alcohol. He takes no medications. His vital signs are within normal limits. On mental status examination, he is oriented to person, place, and time. Cardiac examination shows a systolic ejection murmur that increases with Valsalva maneuver and standing and an S4 gallop. The remainder of the examination shows no abnormalities. An ECG shows a deep S wave in lead V1 and tall R waves in leads V5 and V6. Echocardiography is most likely to show which of the following findings?
A 52-year-old man is brought to the emergency department because of worsening shortness of breath for six hours. For the past 5 days he has also had intermittent stabbing pain in the middle of his chest that has improved today. The pain was worse when he lied down or took a deep breath. For the past 2 weeks, the patient has had a runny nose and dry cough. He has hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. He has smoked a pack of cigarettes daily for 34 years. His current medications include atorvastatin, enalapril, and hydrochlorothiazide. He appears pale and sweaty. His temperature is 38.3°C (100.9°F), pulse is 105/min, and respirations are 25/min. Blood pressure is 107/72 mm Hg during expiration and 86/65 mm Hg during inspiration. Examination shows jugular venous distention and pitting edema below the knees. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this patient's findings?